Psychology

sabrinakool
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

Psychology Mind Map on Psychology, created by sabrinakool on 11/03/2013.

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sabrinakool
Created by sabrinakool almost 6 years ago
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Psychology
1 What is Psychology

Annotations:

  • The scientific study of the behaviour of the mind.
1.1 Psychology vs Psychiatry

Annotations:

  • Psychiatrists: - train as medical doctors - study twice as long as psychologists (13 years) -Legally permitted to prescribe medication - Unlike psychologists they cannot conduct psychological tests 
1.2 Types
1.2.1 Sports

Annotations:

  • Deals with the psychological factors that influence a person's participation in exercise & physical activity. 
1.2.2 Clinical

Annotations:

  • Assessment, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders/psychological problems that affect people.
1.2.3 Forensic

Annotations:

  • Apply psychological theory & skills to better the understanding of the legal system.
1.2.4 Organisational

Annotations:

  • Uses psychology in areas of work, human resource management, training & development, marketing & advertising.
1.2.5 Educational

Annotations:

  • Concerned with how people develop and learn throughout their lives.
1.2.6 Community

Annotations:

  • Understanding people within their social worlds & environment in order to understand and improve their well being.
1.2.7 Health

Annotations:

  • Psychological processes that are relevant to health & illness
1.2.8 Research

Annotations:

  • Working in organisations conducting research that will advance out understanding of human behaviour.
1.3 Qualifications
1.3.1 VCE or equivalent
1.3.1.1 2 years masters dergree
1.3.1.2 3 years doctoral dergree
1.3.1.3 probationary psychologist
1.3.1.3.1 Register with the PRBV

Annotations:

  • (PRBV) Psychologists Registation Board of Victoria
1.3.1.3.1.1 APB (optional)
1.4 Professional Responsibilities
1.4.1 Competence

Annotations:

  • psychologists should be restricted to their areas of competence.
1.4.2 Privacy & confidentiality

Annotations:

  • the secrecy and privacy of information exchanged in a trusting relationship between a psychologist and their client.
1.4.3 Propriety

Annotations:

  • ensure that psychologists do not exploit, or take advantage of, their clients, and that they treat them with dignity.
1.5 Scientific method
1.5.1 Identify and research topic of interest
1.5.2 Formulate Hypothesis
1.5.3 Select Research method & design study
1.5.4 Collect data
1.5.4.1 Quantitative Data
1.5.4.2 Qualitative Data
1.5.5 Analyse data
1.5.6 Draw Conclusions
1.5.7 Report findings
1.6 Psychological Experiments
1.6.1 Experimental Groups

Annotations:

  • is the group exposed to the independent variable (experimental condition).
1.6.2 Control Groups

Annotations:

  • not exposed to the independent variable (control condition).
1.6.3 Laboratory experiments

Annotations:

  • are experiments conducted in a laboratory.
1.6.4 Field experiments

Annotations:

  • are experiments that are carried out in the natural environment of those being studied.
1.6.5 Data
1.6.5.1 Data collection methods
1.6.5.1.1 Direct observation

Annotations:

  • The participants’ behaviours are watched and recorded as objectively and precisely as possible. Instruments such as a stopwatch or video recorder may be used.
1.6.5.1.2 Surveys

Annotations:

  • Participants are given a series of written questions designed to obtain information about their attitudes, opinions and/or specific aspects of their behaviour.
1.6.5.1.3 Interviews

Annotations:

  • A face-to-face conversation is conducted to obtain information about specific aspects of participants’ attitudes, opinions and behaviour.
1.6.5.1.4 Psychological tests

Annotations:

  • Participants are administered a standardised test to obtain a sample of their behaviour. Tests are generally used to assess mental abilities or personality traits, for example, an IQ test.
1.6.5.1.5 Physiological recordings

Annotations:

  • An instrument is used to monitor and record a specific physiological process in a participant. Examples include measures of blood pressure, heart rate, muscle tension, and brain activity.
1.6.5.1.6 The examination of archival (historical) records

Annotations:

  • The psychologist analyses existing institutional records (archives), such as census, economic, medical, legal, educational and business records.
1.6.5.2 Qualitative

Annotations:

  • is the information collected in the course of a research study that is in non-numerical form (e.g. transcripts from interviews).
1.6.5.3 Quantative

Annotations:

  • is information collected in the course of a research study that is numerical in form.
1.6.6 Variables
1.6.6.1 Independent (IV)

Annotations:

  • the variable in the experiment that is selected then systematically manipulated or changed in some way in order to measure its effect(s) on the dependent variable(s)
1.6.6.2 Dependent (DV)

Annotations:

  • the variable in an experiment that is used to observe and measure the effects of the independent variable
1.6.6.3 Extraneous

Annotations:

  • is any variable, other than the IV, that can cause a change in the DV and therefore affect the results of the experiment in an unwanted way.
1.6.7 Population Sample
1.6.7.1 Random

Annotations:

  • when each member of a population has an equal chance of being selected to take part in a study or research.
1.6.7.2 Representative

Annotations:

  • is a sample that matches or accurately reflects the important characteristics of the population from which it is drawn.
1.6.7.3 Biased

Annotations:

  • is a sample that does not accurately reflect the population from which it is drawn (i.e. it is not representative).
1.6.8 Observer Effect

Annotations:

  • occurs when a participant’s behaviour is influenced by their knowledge of an observer’s presence.
1.6.9 Observer Bias

Annotations:

  • occurs when an observer allows their own expectations, previous experience, motives or other personal factors to interfere with the accuracy of their observations.
1.6.10 Naturalistic observation

Annotations:

  •  is a study conducted in a natural setting without any interference from the psychologist.
1.6.11 Case study

Annotations:

  • is a research method that involves the collection of detailed information, usually of a highly personal nature, about an individual, family or small group.
1.7 Ethics
2 Sports Psychology
2.1 YD Law
2.2 Roles
2.2.1 Research
2.2.2 Education
2.2.3 Application
2.3 Motivation
2.3.1 Intrinsic

Annotations:

  • Intrinsic motivation is motivation that results from internal factors operating within an individual
2.3.2 Extrinsic

Annotations:

  • Relates to rewards that are external to the person
2.3.2.1 Tangible

Annotations:

  • can be held
2.3.2.2 Intangible Awards

Annotations:

  • cannot be physically held
2.4 Goals
2.4.1 Long Term
2.4.2 Short Term
2.4.3 Tips for successful goal setting

Annotations:

  • -achievable  -action orientated  -measurable -time-bound -written down and displayed -owned
2.4.4 4 steps for achieving goals

Annotations:

  • Step 1 Goal selection  Step 2 Commitment to a plan Step 3 Review Regularly Step 4 Rewards 
2.5 Self Confidence
2.5.1
3 Clinical Psychology

Annotations:

  • is a specialised area of psychology that deals with the prevention, assessment, diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and mental disorders.
3.1 Roles of a Clinical Psychologist
3.1.1 Psychological assessment & diagnosis
3.1.1.1 D.S.M (V) Diagnostic Statistical Manual
3.1.2 Treatment
3.1.2.1
3.1.3 Research teaching & evaluation
3.2 Areas of specialisation

Annotations:

  • -adults who misuse drugs/alcohol - people who suffer from extreme nervousness/worry - children who have nightmares - adults addicted to gambling -people who have problems with sleep -parents who cannot manage their childs behaviour  -people who have lost significant amounts of weight -sexual problems -bed wetting 
3.2.1 Where they work

Annotations:

  • -colleges & uni's -hospitals -doctors surgeries   -defence force   -specialist clinics  - private practices
3.3 Psychological assessment

Annotations:

  • in-depth measurement or evaluation of a clients Problems & concerns, abilities and/or charateristics
3.3.1 Clinical interview
3.3.1.1 Rapport

Annotations:

  • (ra-pp-or) rapport is a sympathetic relationship or understanding between two or more people.
3.3.1.2 S.O.L.E.R

Annotations:

  • Squarely facing the client Open body language Lean towards client slightly Eye contact Relaxed & natural behaviour   
3.3.1.3 Open and closed questions

Annotations:

  • Closed-ended questions great for gathering data  eg: - how old are you?        -where do you live?   
  • Open-ended questions used to get the client to usually  "open up" about theit situation, feelings, thoughts eg: - Tell me how you spend your weekends?                                              - Tell me how you feel about school?
3.3.1.4 Reflective listening & paraphrasing

Annotations:

  • Reflective listening is when a clinical psychologist demonstrates to the client that they have heard what they said and understand their point of view.
  • Paraphrasing is the act of repeating back or restating what the client has said to check for understanding.
3.3.2 Psychological tests
3.3.2.1 MMPI-2

Annotations:

  • The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
3.3.2.2 Projective tests
3.3.2.2.1 Rorasch Ink blot test
3.3.2.3 Intelligence tests
3.3.2.3.1 IQ evaluation

Annotations:

  •      mental age ------------------------   × 100  chronological age 
3.3.3 Behavioural observations
3.4 Clinical Case Formulation
3.4.1 1. Predisposing factors -sets client up for mental problems
3.4.2 2. Precipitating factors -tips the client over the edge
3.4.3 3. Perpetuating Factors -keeps the problem on going
3.4.4 4. Protective factors -any good/positive influences
3.5 Happiness psychology
3.6 Mental disorders

Annotations:

  • a significant impairment of a person’s thoughts, emotions or behaviour which causes distress to themself or other people, and also affects their day-to-day functioning.
3.6.1 Mood Disorders
3.6.1.1 Depression
3.6.1.1.1 Treatment CBT

Annotations:

  • Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
3.6.2 Psychotic disorders
3.6.2.1 Schizophrenia
3.6.2.1.1 Treatment medication & counselling by clinical psychology
3.6.3 Anxiety disorders
3.6.3.1 OCD
3.6.3.1.1 Treatment Ritual prevention
3.6.3.2 PTSD
3.6.3.2.1 Treatment EDMR

Annotations:

  • Eye movement desensitization repocessing
3.6.3.3 Phobias
3.6.3.3.1 Treatment Systematic Desenitisation
4 Forensic Psychology

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