Maggie Liang
Mind Map by Maggie Liang, updated more than 1 year ago
Maggie Liang
Created by Maggie Liang about 6 years ago


The three perspective of A2 psychology

Resource summary

  1. Behaviourist


    • Behaviourist Perspective: The behaviours would be change by receiving the consequences of the environment 
    1. Classical Conditioning
      1. Ivan Pavlov's Dog
        1. Neutral Stimulus
          1. Conditional stimulus
            1. Unconditional stimulus
          2. Operant Conditioning
            1. B.F.Skinner's Box
              1. Reword & Punishment
            2. Programm Learning


              • Programmed learning has three elements:  (1) it delivers information in small bites (2) it is self-paced by the learner (3) it provides immediate feedback, both positive and negative, to the learner    
              1. Bandura
                1. Little Albert
                2. Strengths
                  1. 1.stop the behavior or prevent in the 1st place
                    1. 2. Token reinforcement has shown to be effective
                      1. 3. Programmed learning has shown to be effective
                      2. Weaknesses
                        1. 1.Theory itself fails to accept cognitive influences of learning and social learning
                          1. 2. What may work as an effective reward or punishment for one student may not for another
                            1. 3.Negative consequences may lead to more negative attitudes (and behavior) to authority figures and school overall
                          2. Cognitive


                            • Cognitive perspective:   Concerned with how we process, store, and retrieve information    
                            1. Strengths
                              1. 1.It takes mental processes into account of how we play an active role in receiving, organizing, and retaining information
                                1. 2.Has been reinforced through emerging learning styles and research into how learning takes place
                                  1. 3.Encourages the social process & interaction of learning through culture and language
                                  2. Weaknesess
                                    1. 1.It may require more class time, planning, and resources than what is available
                                      1. 2.It doesn’t account for rewards & punishments that may encourage students
                                        1. 3.May not be feasible to implement in many classes
                                        2. Piaget's theory
                                          1. Children learn from playing an active role in their environment
                                            1. Children are active in exploring and testing their surroundings in order to make sense of the world
                                              1. Stage 1- Sensorimotor- (birth to 2) Object permanence
                                                1. Stage 2- Preoperational (2-7) Problems with conservation task
                                                  1. Stage 3- Concrete Operational (7-11) Cannot work with ideas that are contrary to the fact or abstract questions
                                                    1. Stage 4- Formal Operational (11+) We are ‘fully capable’ of complex thought & action
                                                  2. Assimilation
                                                    1. Process of fitting NEW information and experiences into an existing schema
                                                    2. Accommodation
                                                      1. Process of altering EXISTING schemes or creating NEW ones in response to new information and experiences
                                                        1. ALWAYS assimilate before we accommodate
                                                        2. Bruner's discovery learning
                                                          1. Students play an active role in organizing content & information THEMSELVES
                                                            1. Teachers GUIDE the students, but not give them info
                                                            2. Ausubel’s Subsumption Theory (1960)
                                                              1. Derivative subsumption
                                                                1. Deriving material from what you already know- Adding info into your EXISTING schemas
                                                                2. Correlative subsumption
                                                                  1. Extending what you already know by Modifying your pre-existing schemas or making new schemas
                                                                  2. Student learning is best accomplished when the teacher gives the information in its final form
                                                                  3. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective (1978)
                                                                    1. Zone of Proximal Development
                                                                      1. ‘Range’ of tasks & abilities that a child cannot yet perform independently, but can complete when given appropriate help and support
                                                                      2. Scaffolding
                                                                    2. Humanistic


                                                                      • Humanistic perspective: The theory emphasized people's goodness, freedom to choose, and the desire to be better people   
                                                                      1. Strengths
                                                                        1. 1.Focused around the needs of the student
                                                                          1. 2.Majority of students noted that they were more excited about school
                                                                            1. 3.Many students passed subjects where they failed before
                                                                            2. Weaknesess
                                                                              1. 1.Issue of feasibility (cost) on large scale and with different students
                                                                                1. 2.Too student-centered and detracts from preparing students to deal with the “real world”
                                                                                  1. 3.Many are not trained to teach in such manners
                                                                                  2. Rogers
                                                                                    1. Process Education
                                                                                      1. Idea that a teacher should be a facilitator and the process of learning is more important than the end result
                                                                                        1. Students are self-motivated to develop & learn
                                                                                          1. Subject matter should be relevant
                                                                                            1. Self-evaluation should be encouraged
                                                                                              1. Student should feel safe & secure
                                                                                                1. Develop independence, creativity, & self-reliance
                                                                                            2. Cooperative learning
                                                                                              1. Jigsaw technique
                                                                                                1. Each student is either given a specific role to accomplish within a group
                                                                                              2. Learning circles
                                                                                                1. Students are heterogeneously grouped with the aim of learning from each other and completing tasks together
                                                                                                2. Open classrooms
                                                                                                  1. An ‘classroom’ where large groups of mixed-ability and mixed-age children work together in a single, large room with different ‘areas’
                                                                                                  2. SummerHill School
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