Burcu Kocoglu
Mind Map by Burcu Kocoglu, updated more than 1 year ago
Burcu Kocoglu
Created by Burcu Kocoglu about 6 years ago


operant conditioning

Resource summary

  1. Operant Conditioning is a form of learning for which the likelihood of a particular response occurring is determined by the consequences of that response. Also known as instrumental conditioning.
    1. 3-PHASE MODEL
        1. Events that precede behaviour. Cue and motivation to perform behaviour
          1. The way in which an animal or person behaves in response to a particular situation or stimulus.
          2. CONSEQUENCE
            1. A result or effect
              1. SATISFYING / DESIRABLE
                1. Positive Reinforcement - Giving something good. E.g. Getting money for washing the dishes
                  1. Negative Reinforcement - Taking away something bad. E.g. Having your chores taken away for a week for getting a good grade on a SAC
                    1. Strengthens behaviour. Learner more likely to repeat this behaviour
                  2. UNSATISFYING / UNDESIRABLE
                    1. Punishment - Giving something bad. E.g. Getting scolded for coming home past curfew
                      1. Response Cost - Taking away something good / valuable. E.g. Having your phone taken off you for disobeying your parents
                        1. Weakens behaviour. Learner less likely to repeat behaviour
                    1. Order - Reinforcement or punishment needs to occur after response, not before.
                      1. Timing - Reinforcement or punishment needs to occur as close in time to the desired response as possible.
                        1. Appropriateness - For a stimulus to be a reinforcer (or punishment), it must provide a pleasing (or unpleasant) consequence for its recipient
                        2. SCHEDULE OF DELIVERY
                          1. Continuous - Reinforcing every correct response after it occurs. Good for acquisition
                            1. Partial - reinforcing some correct responses but not all of them. Good for maintaining conditioned response
                              1. FIXED
                                1. Fixed Interval - Reinforcement is given AFTER a set/fixed period of time following a correct response
                                  1. Fixed Ratio - Reinforcement is given AFTER a set number of correct responses
                                    1. Example: An apple picker gets payed $25 for every two buckets of apple filled
                                    2. Example: Giving yourself a break for every hour you study
                                  2. VARIABLE
                                    1. Variable Interval - Reinforcement is given RANDOMLY AFTER and AVERAGE period of time following a correct response
                                      1. Variable Ratio - Reinforcement is given RANDOMLY AFTER an AVERAGE number of correct responses
                                        1. Example: A dog receiving a reward on average for every second response of sitting up when commanded to 'sit'
                                        2. Example: Receiving pocket money every two weeks on average for doing chores
                              2. KEY PROCESSES
                                1. Acquisition - The establishment of a response through reinforcement
                                  1. Stimulus Generalisation - Occurs when the correct response is made to another stimulus which is similar to the original stimulus for which reinforcement is obtained
                                    1. Extinction - The gradual decrease in the strength or rate of responding after a period of non-reinforcement. Occurs after the termination of reinforcement
                                      1. Stimulus Discrimination - Organism makes response to a stimulus for which reinforcement is obtained but not for any other similar stimulus
                                        1. Spontaneous Recovery - After a rest period, the response is shown again in the absence of reinforcement
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