OPERANT CONDITIONING

Burcu Kocoglu
Mind Map by Burcu Kocoglu, updated more than 1 year ago
Burcu Kocoglu
Created by Burcu Kocoglu about 6 years ago
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operant conditioning

Resource summary

OPERANT CONDITIONING
  1. Operant Conditioning is a form of learning for which the likelihood of a particular response occurring is determined by the consequences of that response. Also known as instrumental conditioning.
    1. 3-PHASE MODEL
      1. ANTECEDENT (DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULIS)
        1. Events that precede behaviour. Cue and motivation to perform behaviour
        2. BEHAVIOUR (RESPONSE)
          1. The way in which an animal or person behaves in response to a particular situation or stimulus.
          2. CONSEQUENCE
            1. A result or effect
              1. SATISFYING / DESIRABLE
                1. Positive Reinforcement - Giving something good. E.g. Getting money for washing the dishes
                  1. Negative Reinforcement - Taking away something bad. E.g. Having your chores taken away for a week for getting a good grade on a SAC
                    1. Strengthens behaviour. Learner more likely to repeat this behaviour
                  2. UNSATISFYING / UNDESIRABLE
                    1. Punishment - Giving something bad. E.g. Getting scolded for coming home past curfew
                      1. Response Cost - Taking away something good / valuable. E.g. Having your phone taken off you for disobeying your parents
                        1. Weakens behaviour. Learner less likely to repeat behaviour
                  3. FACTORS AFFECTING EFFICIENCIES
                    1. Order - Reinforcement or punishment needs to occur after response, not before.
                      1. Timing - Reinforcement or punishment needs to occur as close in time to the desired response as possible.
                        1. Appropriateness - For a stimulus to be a reinforcer (or punishment), it must provide a pleasing (or unpleasant) consequence for its recipient
                        2. SCHEDULE OF DELIVERY
                          1. Continuous - Reinforcing every correct response after it occurs. Good for acquisition
                            1. Partial - reinforcing some correct responses but not all of them. Good for maintaining conditioned response
                              1. FIXED
                                1. Fixed Interval - Reinforcement is given AFTER a set/fixed period of time following a correct response
                                  1. Fixed Ratio - Reinforcement is given AFTER a set number of correct responses
                                    1. Example: An apple picker gets payed $25 for every two buckets of apple filled
                                    2. Example: Giving yourself a break for every hour you study
                                  2. VARIABLE
                                    1. Variable Interval - Reinforcement is given RANDOMLY AFTER and AVERAGE period of time following a correct response
                                      1. Variable Ratio - Reinforcement is given RANDOMLY AFTER an AVERAGE number of correct responses
                                        1. Example: A dog receiving a reward on average for every second response of sitting up when commanded to 'sit'
                                        2. Example: Receiving pocket money every two weeks on average for doing chores
                              2. KEY PROCESSES
                                1. Acquisition - The establishment of a response through reinforcement
                                  1. Stimulus Generalisation - Occurs when the correct response is made to another stimulus which is similar to the original stimulus for which reinforcement is obtained
                                    1. Extinction - The gradual decrease in the strength or rate of responding after a period of non-reinforcement. Occurs after the termination of reinforcement
                                      1. Stimulus Discrimination - Organism makes response to a stimulus for which reinforcement is obtained but not for any other similar stimulus
                                        1. Spontaneous Recovery - After a rest period, the response is shown again in the absence of reinforcement
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