Kidneys and Body Fluids 6

Daniel Elandix G
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

Physiology 1B Mind Map on Kidneys and Body Fluids 6, created by Daniel Elandix G on 11/05/2013.

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Daniel Elandix G
Created by Daniel Elandix G almost 6 years ago
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Kidneys and Body Fluids 6
1 Sodium Control

Annotations:

  • Excretion is decreased by: Renin angiotensin Aldosterone Noradrenaline Excretion is increased by ANP and prostaglandins.
1.1 Hormones Affecting Balance
1.2 Renin-Angiotensin System

Annotations:

  • Decreases sodium excretion by increasing aldosterone Direct effect on proximal tubular epithelium Renal vasoconstriction due to reduced medullary flow which increase medullary osmotic gradient and passive NA reabsorption in thin ascending limb
1.2.1 Direct Effects
1.2.2 Aldosterone

Annotations:

  • Steroid from the adrenal cortex. Increases Na reabsorption with K and H secretion. Acts on principal cells of collecting ducts. Immediate genomic effects to increase permeability to K
1.2.2.1 Stimuli

Annotations:

  • Stimulated by Angiotensin A rise in plasma k very sensitive. Afall in plasma NA ACTH
2 ANP

Annotations:

  • Atrial natriuretic peptide. 28 amino acids long Produced in Atrail myocytes, available also as BNP and CNP They react with receptors to produce effects such as Natriuresis and diureis. Lowers BP by causing vasodilation Reduce smooth muscle responsiveness Decrease levels of renin, aldosterone and AVP.
3 Potassium Balance

Annotations:

  • As potassium is the most prevalent cation. Normalization is needed due to electrical polarisation and for normal intracellular function. 3.5 to 5.5 mmol/l are the ranges, any less or more is bad.
3.1 Control

Annotations:

  •  baklancStorage is due to physiology and pathophysiology. Insulin, adrenaline and  aldosterone enables the physiology to keep the  balance balanced. Pathophysiology: acid-base balance, plasma osmolality, cell lysis and exercise
3.1.1 Renal Handling

Annotations:

  • Freely filtered. Net reabsorption... In the collecting duct, K is reabsorbed by intercalated duct and secreted by principal cells according to need.
3.2 4 Main determinants

Annotations:

  • A :concentration of K in the cytoplasm in principal cells B: Conc of K in tubular fluid C; Transepithelial Potential Difference D: Permeability of luminal membrane to K
3.2.1 Factors influencing K secretion

Annotations:

  • Aldosterone A C D K Intake A C Aldosterone Distal Nephron Flow Rate B Distal nephron Na delivery C and Flow rate Impermeant anions Via C in tubular fluid
3.3 Systemic Acid-Base Status

Annotations:

  • In acute Alcalosis. K secretion increase. increase in pH makes it more permeable and hence secretion increase While decrease, i.e acute acidosis K is retained. chronic acidosis. Secretion increases due to inhibition of  proximal reabsorption.