Language Learning Theories

jkinchler
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jkinchler
Created by jkinchler almost 5 years ago
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Language Learning Theories for SLA

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Language Learning Theories
1 Cognitive Language Acquisition
1.1 Change in Knowledge
1.1.1 "Nothing" to "Something"
1.1.2 Build Ties between New & Learned
1.2 Jean Piaget
1.3 Language reflects thought process
1.3.1 Through Interactions with other People
1.3.1.1 Develops Gradually as Child goes thru Stages
1.3.1.1.1 Sensorimotor
1.3.1.1.1.1 Physical Objects
1.3.1.1.1.2 Motor Skills
1.3.1.1.2 Preoperational
1.3.1.1.2.1 Forms Words
1.3.1.1.2.2 Concept of Time & Space
1.3.1.1.2.3 Symbols & Shapes
1.3.1.1.3 Concrete Operations
1.3.1.1.3.1 Group things in Logical order
1.3.1.1.3.2 Convey own Ideas & Views
1.3.1.1.4 Formal Operations
1.3.1.1.4.1 Logical Reasoning
1.3.1.1.4.2 Communicating in an Adult Manner
2 Behaviorist Theory
2.1 B. F. Skinner
2.2 All Behavior is Viewed as a Response to Stimuli
2.2.1 Rewards
2.2.1.1 Habit Forming
2.2.1.2 Treats
2.2.2 Reinforcement
2.2.2.1 Negative
2.2.2.1.1 Punishments
2.2.2.2 Positive
2.2.2.2.1 "Great Effort Sophie!"
2.2.2.2.2 Praise
2.2.3 Corrections
2.2.3.1 No Explanations
2.3 Environment changes Learner's Behavior
2.3.1 Observation
2.3.2 Imitation
3 Acculturation Theory
3.1 John Schumann
3.2 Immigrants Want to Be Part of New Country's Culture
3.2.1 Share different aspects of culture with class
3.2.1.1 Holidays
3.2.1.2 Food
3.2.1.3 Rituals
3.2.1.4 Traditions
3.2.2 Social Factors Affecting Rate of Language Acquisition
3.2.2.1 Socialization
3.2.2.2 Motivation
3.2.2.3 Attitude
3.2.2.4 Culture Shock
3.2.3 Key Factors of Success
3.2.3.1 Emotional Receptiveness
3.2.3.2 Willingness of Mainstream Culture to Accept Language Learners
4 Universal Grammar
4.1 Noam Chomsky
4.2 Born with basic grammar rules for language - "Prewired"
4.2.1 Naturally pickup language
4.2.2 Influenced by environment
4.3 All Language Rests on Innate Building Blocks of Expression
4.3.1 Set of Rules for Correct Sentence Structure
4.3.1.1 Verbs
4.3.1.2 Nouns
4.3.1.3 Adjectives
4.4 Competence not Performance
5 Conversation Theory
5.1 Gordon Pask
5.2 Learn Language thru Conversation / Talking
5.2.1 Scaffolding
5.2.1.1 Higher Proficiency Level Helps Lower Proficiency Speaker Keep Conversation Going
5.2.1.1.1 Rephrasing
5.2.1.1.2 Asking Questions
5.2.2 Negotiation of Meaning
5.2.2.1 Both Speakers Participate to the Best of Their Abilities
5.2.2.1.1 Must Understand What They are Talking About
5.2.2.1.2 Make Conversation Grow & Continue
6 Acquisition - Learning Hypothesis
6.1 Stephen Krashen
6.2 Language Acquisition
6.2.1 Implicit Knowledge & Acquired Language Competence
6.2.1.1 Passively Learned
6.2.1.2 Unconsciously Learned
6.2.1.3 Rely on Feelings of Correctness over Knowledge of Rules
6.2.1.4 Learned through Natural Communication
6.2.1.4.1 Conversations
6.2.1.4.2 Use Language in Authentic Situations
6.3 Language Learning
6.3.1 Explicit & Formal Instruction
6.3.1.1 Actively Learned
6.3.1.2 Consciously Learned
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