Language Learning Theories

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Language Learning Theories for SLA

Resource summary

Language Learning Theories
1 Cognitive Language Acquisition
1.1 Change in Knowledge
1.1.1 "Nothing" to "Something"
1.1.2 Build Ties between New & Learned
1.2 Jean Piaget
1.3 Language reflects thought process
1.3.1 Through Interactions with other People Develops Gradually as Child goes thru Stages Sensorimotor Physical Objects Motor Skills Preoperational Forms Words Concept of Time & Space Symbols & Shapes Concrete Operations Group things in Logical order Convey own Ideas & Views Formal Operations Logical Reasoning Communicating in an Adult Manner
2 Behaviorist Theory
2.1 B. F. Skinner
2.2 All Behavior is Viewed as a Response to Stimuli
2.2.1 Rewards Habit Forming Treats
2.2.2 Reinforcement Negative Punishments Positive "Great Effort Sophie!" Praise
2.2.3 Corrections No Explanations
2.3 Environment changes Learner's Behavior
2.3.1 Observation
2.3.2 Imitation
3 Acculturation Theory
3.1 John Schumann
3.2 Immigrants Want to Be Part of New Country's Culture
3.2.1 Share different aspects of culture with class Holidays Food Rituals Traditions
3.2.2 Social Factors Affecting Rate of Language Acquisition Socialization Motivation Attitude Culture Shock
3.2.3 Key Factors of Success Emotional Receptiveness Willingness of Mainstream Culture to Accept Language Learners
4 Universal Grammar
4.1 Noam Chomsky
4.2 Born with basic grammar rules for language - "Prewired"
4.2.1 Naturally pickup language
4.2.2 Influenced by environment
4.3 All Language Rests on Innate Building Blocks of Expression
4.3.1 Set of Rules for Correct Sentence Structure Verbs Nouns Adjectives
4.4 Competence not Performance
5 Conversation Theory
5.1 Gordon Pask
5.2 Learn Language thru Conversation / Talking
5.2.1 Scaffolding Higher Proficiency Level Helps Lower Proficiency Speaker Keep Conversation Going Rephrasing Asking Questions
5.2.2 Negotiation of Meaning Both Speakers Participate to the Best of Their Abilities Must Understand What They are Talking About Make Conversation Grow & Continue
6 Acquisition - Learning Hypothesis
6.1 Stephen Krashen
6.2 Language Acquisition
6.2.1 Implicit Knowledge & Acquired Language Competence Passively Learned Unconsciously Learned Rely on Feelings of Correctness over Knowledge of Rules Learned through Natural Communication Conversations Use Language in Authentic Situations
6.3 Language Learning
6.3.1 Explicit & Formal Instruction Actively Learned Consciously Learned
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