Genes and Chromosones

Anand Patel
Mind Map by Anand Patel, updated more than 1 year ago
Anand Patel
Created by Anand Patel almost 5 years ago


Genes and Chromosomes Revision

Resource summary

Genes and Chromosones
1 Genes are a set of microorganisms which forms part of a chromosone
1.1 Us humans produce sperm and eggs. In each egg or sperm there are 23 pairs of chromosomes.
1.2 There can be different amounts of genes per chromosome, and it mainly depends on the size of the chromosome.
1.3 Basic defenition : short sections of DNA
1.4 The DNA then contains a code/ instructions as to how to create a newborn animal
1.4.1 Some of the DNA features (e.g. small ears) can be passed on to the newborn animal
1.4.2 Some DNA is carried from father to baby, some from mother to baby or are based on enviromental facors
1.5 There are two types of genes, DOMINANT and RECESSIVE
1.5.1 Dominant is a type of gene which is more powerful
1.5.2 Reccesive is a type of gene which is less powerful
1.5.3 e.g mum = big eyes (dominant), dad = small eyes (recessive). Child will have big eyes
2 A chromosome is a set of DNA carrying genetic information from a male and female animal
2.1 'XY' chromosone = male
2.2 'XX' chromosone = female
2.3 The make up of chromosomes and genes
2.3.1 The writing in the gene in the picture is the basic code. It is made up of 4 letters, A C G T They stand for the nucleotides in DNA adenine cytosine guanine thymine
2.4 Chromosomes are basically long strands of DNA which form up the codes to making a new animal
2.5 They are mainly made of proteins
2.6 23 chromosomes from the egg meet with 23 chromosomes from the sperm
2.6.1 The genes then compare qualities Physical traits are then incorporated into the newborn
2.7 Pairs of chromosomes in animals
2.7.1 Human :23 pairs
2.7.2 Fruit Fly :4 pairs
2.7.3 Rice plant :12 pairs
2.7.4 Dog :39 pairs
3 Selective breeding is when genes and chromosomes are extracted from an animal and replaced with another animal's gene or chromosome
3.1 This is usually to stop or help an animal in a characteristic or feature
3.2 Examples
3.2.1 e.g. a chicken has had some of its genes replaced to make it shyer and have smaller wings so they don't fly away
3.2.2 e.g. wheat is bred to have qualities such as it is easier to fertilise them and so they are less likely to catch a disease
3.3 Side Effects
3.3.1 Good Effects More food Better produce Colour Taste
3.3.2 Bad Effects If a new disease comes along regarding an animal which has had genes extracted, the other animal will have the disease too e.g. if chicken has a new disease and chicken genes have been inputted into a horse, the horse could have the dsease too Health is mainly disregarded in selective breeding Some people think that it is ethically wrong to do so
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