Membrane Systems and Organelles of Animal Cells


Chapter 3 Cells - Membrane Systems and Organelles of Animal Cells
Mind Map by H L, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by H L over 2 years ago

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Membrane Systems and Organelles of Animal Cells
  1. Nucleus
    1. Largest and most obvious organelle in cells
      1. 10-25um in diameter
        1. DNA in chromosomes: contains DNA in close association with histones
          1. Histones: help support and protect DNA
            1. DNA diffusely organised in a form, chromatin
              1. Heterochromatin: Densely packed (dark under EM)
                1. Euchromatin: Less densely packed (lighter under EM)
                  1. Nucleoli
                    1. 1-3 um
                      1. Under EM, appears darker than chromatin and is a more discrete structure
                        1. Contains DNA that codes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
                          1. Makes ribosomes (organelles essential in the process of protein synthesis
                            1. Once produced, these are transported out of the nucleolus, through the nucleus and into the cytoplasm
                        2. Control centre of the cell
                          1. DNA in chromosomes codes for the synthesis of proteins in the cytoplasm
                            1. Islolating chromosomes (DNA) from cytoplasm and its reactions, DNA is protected from damage
                              1. ‘DNA code’ for protein synthesis needs to be moved to cytoplasm where protein synthesis takes place and other molecules need to enter nucleus from cytoplasm (nuclear pores in nuclear envelope)
                                1. Nuclear envelope is a double membrane
                                  1. Outer membrane encrusted with ribosomes (site of RER)
                                    1. mRNA (carrying genetic code from DNA) passes through nuclear pores into cytoplasm
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