1.1 Naturalistic Observation definition - A research method
carried out in a naturalistic settings, in
which the investigators doesn't
interfere in any way but merely
observes the behaviours in question,
though this is likely to involve the use
of structured observations.
1.1.1 An example is when Mary Ainsworth studied the
'Ugandan women and children' interactions.
184.108.40.206 Her data/observations were structured.
1.2 Even though the observer does not
interfere with the experiment, their
observations might be structured.
1.3 Controlled Observation definition - A form of
investigating in which behaviour is observed
but under controlled conditions, in contrast with
a naturalistic observation.
2 Observational Techniques
2.1 Unstructured Observation definition: An
observer records all relevant behaviour
but has no system. This technique may be
chosen because the behaviour to be
studied is largely unpredictable.
2.1.1 Problem? Behaviours recorded will be those which are
most visible of eye-catching to the observer but no
always be the most important or relevant behaviours.
2.2 Structured Observation definition: An
observed uses various systems to
organise observations, such as
behavioural categories and sampling
2.2.1 Behaviour Categories - Dividing a
target behaviour into a subset of
behaviours. Can be done using
checklists or a coding system.
220.127.116.11 Problem? Deciding how different behaviours
should be categorised as people's perception of
2.2.2 Sampling Procedures - Who you are
observing and when.
18.104.22.168 Event Sampling - An observational technique in which a
count is kept of the number of times a certain behaviour
22.214.171.124 Time Sampling - Recording behaviours in a given time frame.
3 Improvements of sampling procedures: 1) More than one
observer - Inter-rater reliability observer 2) Film it 3) Compare
the observers results ( should be 80% the same)