Observational Methods and Techniques

Lily Gray
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

A-Level Psychology (Research Methods) Mind Map on Observational Methods and Techniques, created by Lily Gray on 11/10/2013.

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Lily Gray
Created by Lily Gray almost 6 years ago
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Observational Methods and Techniques
1 Observational Methods
1.1 Naturalistic Observation definition - A research method carried out in a naturalistic settings, in which the investigators doesn't interfere in any way but merely observes the behaviours in question, though this is likely to involve the use of structured observations.
1.1.1 An example is when Mary Ainsworth studied the 'Ugandan women and children' interactions.
1.1.1.1 Her data/observations were structured.
1.2 Even though the observer does not interfere with the experiment, their observations might be structured.
1.3 Controlled Observation definition - A form of investigating in which behaviour is observed but under controlled conditions, in contrast with a naturalistic observation.
2 Observational Techniques
2.1 Unstructured Observation definition: An observer records all relevant behaviour but has no system. This technique may be chosen because the behaviour to be studied is largely unpredictable.
2.1.1 Problem? Behaviours recorded will be those which are most visible of eye-catching to the observer but no always be the most important or relevant behaviours.
2.2 Structured Observation definition: An observed uses various systems to organise observations, such as behavioural categories and sampling procedures.
2.2.1 Behaviour Categories - Dividing a target behaviour into a subset of behaviours. Can be done using checklists or a coding system.
2.2.1.1 Problem? Deciding how different behaviours should be categorised as people's perception of behaviour differs.
2.2.2 Sampling Procedures - Who you are observing and when.
2.2.2.1 Event Sampling - An observational technique in which a count is kept of the number of times a certain behaviour occurs.
2.2.2.2 Time Sampling - Recording behaviours in a given time frame.
3 Improvements of sampling procedures: 1) More than one observer - Inter-rater reliability observer 2) Film it 3) Compare the observers results ( should be 80% the same)

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