Second Language Acquisition

Wes Justice
Mind Map by Wes Justice, updated more than 1 year ago
Wes Justice
Created by Wes Justice over 5 years ago
40
2

Description

Second Language Acquisition Mind Map as part of Auburn University's CTRD5003 course.

Resource summary

Second Language Acquisition
1 Noam Chomsky: Universal Grammar

Annotations:

  • “All human language rests on innate building blocks of expression.” While all languages vary in utilization they are all dependent on the same building blocks: verbs, nouns, adjectives, etc.
1.1 ". . . innate building blocks of expression."
1.2 Application
1.2.1 Classroom
1.2.1.1 Co-instruction with ELLs
1.2.1.2 Grading
1.2.1.2.1 ELLs: Marks consider evaluated level as well as mediated progress.
1.2.1.2.2 Native Speakers: Academic Literacy is ongoing for all speakers, native and non-native, and grading will follow equitable guidelines.
1.2.2 Learner
1.2.2.1 Inborn Confussion
1.2.2.1.1 Differentiated Instruction
1.2.2.1.1.1 Further Explanation of Instruction in Relatable Terms
1.2.2.1.1.1.1
1.2.2.1.2 Empathy for Error
1.2.2.2 Practice Through Inputs
1.2.2.2.1 Exposure to Academic Media
2 Jerome Bruner: Scaffolding
2.1 Application
2.1.1 Classroom

Annotations:

  • Scaffolding in the classroom is designed to help children and adolescents bridge gaps in cognitive ability in order to arrive at otherwise forgone conclusions related to subject matter.  Identically, for language learners, scaffolding is a means to encourage use of increasingly difficult vocabulary and sentence structure to improve competency.
2.1.1.1 Thesaurus
2.1.1.1.1
2.1.1.1.2

Annotations:

  • Not related but funny.
2.1.2 Learner
2.1.2.1 Native Speakers

Annotations:

  • Even for native speakers vocabulary can be an issue or even a downright struggle.  Scaffolding provides a means by which to learn words (i.e. roots) of varying difficult.  Exposure, instruction, and use breed competency.
2.1.2.2 ELLs

Annotations:

  • For ELLs, scaffolding provides a bridge to high vocabulary and competency skills much in the same way as Native Speakers.  However, incremental instruction should be active as well as clarifying marks by instructors while forming competency.
2.2 Bridging the Gap Incrementally and with Guided Assistance
3 Jim Cummins: BICS vs. CALP
3.1 BICS

Annotations:

  • Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills (BICS): “Conversational Fluency” — Includes “high frequency vocabulary and basic grammatical expressions” and does not represent a totality of the language.
3.1.1
3.2 Application
3.2.1 Classroom
3.2.1.1 Instruction on Types of Writing and Speech
3.2.1.1.1
3.2.1.1.2
3.2.2 Learner
3.2.2.1 Exposure
3.2.2.1.1 Media Resources
3.2.2.1.1.1 Guided Independent Study
3.2.2.1.1.2 Group Assignments to Learn New Language Alongside Native Speakers

Annotations:

  • This method requires a degree of sensitivity training in order to encourage growth and stem embarrassment or anxiety in ELLs.
3.3 CALP

Annotations:

  • Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP): “Represents our ability to interpret and to produce increasingly complex aspects of the language.”
3.3.1
4 Stephen Krashen: Input Hypothesis
4.1 "When we understand messages."

Annotations:

  • Dr. Krashen's Input Hypothesis operates under the basic principle that language is acquired only “when we understand what people tell us—not how people say it, but [instead] what they say. Or when we understand what we read.”
4.1.1 Ensure Clear and Concise Instruction
4.1.1.1
4.2 Application
4.2.1 Classroom
4.2.1.1 Labeling
4.2.1.2 Pidgin as a Bridge
4.2.1.2.1 Basic Sign Language
4.2.1.2.2 Teaching Cognates
4.2.2 Learner
4.2.2.1 Differentiated Instruction
4.2.2.2 "Talking is not practicing."
5 Dialogue Journals
5.1 Written communication comprised of academic writing..

Annotations:

  • Using Dialogue Journals--so long as the educator is mindful of the manner in which they mark and suggest improvement--is an excellent method to encourage language proficiency in both native and non-native speakers.
5.2 Application
5.2.1 Classroom

Annotations:

  • I feel adamantly about dialogue journals and intend to use them in my classroom via integration into "bell ringers."  Given the opportunity and mindful encouragement all level so English competency stand to improve in academic language.
5.2.1.1 Shared Information
5.2.1.1.1 Fresh Ideas and Instruction Without Intimidation of Speaking

Annotations:

  • The educator has the opportunity to praise students on multiple fronts. Ranging from creative thinking to factual presentation, all while being able to encourage more specific and intricate word usage as well as complex sentence structure and writing techniques.
5.2.1.1.1.1
5.2.2 Learner
5.2.2.1
5.2.2.2 ELLs and Native Speakers
5.2.2.2.1 Increased Competency
5.2.2.2.1.1 Vocabulary Usage
5.2.2.2.1.2 Sentence Structuring
5.2.2.2.1.3 Writing Techniques
5.2.2.2.1.4 Content Knowledge

Annotations:

  • Especially viable in subjects such as English, Literature, Social Science, and the Arts.
6 Catchy Title
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