Psychology: Memory

Meka George
Mind Map by Meka George, updated more than 1 year ago
Meka George
Created by Meka George almost 5 years ago
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Mind Map on Psychology: Memory, created by Meka George on 09/15/2015.
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Resource summary

Psychology: Memory
1 Encoding
1.1 How brains process incoming information
1.2 Transferring info into something that can be stored and retrieved later
1.2.1 First goes to short-term but is process with previous knowledge
1.3 Types of Encoding
1.3.1 Elaborative: Mixing of old and new information
1.3.1.1 Structural Processing
1.3.1.1.1 Looking at how things are put together

Annotations:

  • Example: How letters make up words
1.3.1.2 Phonemic Processing
1.3.1.2.1 How things sound

Annotations:

  • Example: How words sound
1.3.1.3 Semantic Processing
1.3.1.3.1 What things mean

Annotations:

  • Example: The meaning/definition of words
1.3.2 Visual Imagery: Turning a word into a picture in your head
1.3.2.1 Method of Loci
1.3.2.1.1 Associating points of info with rl places
1.3.3 Organizational: Putting things into groups; categorization
1.3.3.1 Hierarchies
1.3.3.1.1 Overarching groups with subgroups

Annotations:

  • Can be broken down into more specific groups
1.3.3.2 Schemas
1.3.3.2.1 Cluster of information

Annotations:

  • Less organized than hierarchies
2 Storage
2.1 Stages of memory
2.1.1 Sensory Store/Buffer
2.1.1.1 Iconic Store: Visual
2.1.1.1.1 Really quick (250 ms)
2.1.1.1.2 Information stays for a short while and then is either processed or lost
2.1.1.1.3 Allows people to pick out things from memory

Annotations:

  • Partial report is more effective than whole report
2.1.1.2 Echoic Store
2.1.1.2.1 Longer duration
2.1.1.2.2 Categorization of Stimuli

Annotations:

  • Example: When you ask someone to repeat something they just said but you remember it before they repeat it. 
2.1.2 Short-term
2.1.2.1 Set Capacity
2.1.2.1.1 Miller's Magic Number (7+/-2)
2.1.2.1.2 Chunking helps people remember more

Annotations:

  • Example: Remembering 7 words versus 7 letters
2.1.2.2 Time Limit
2.1.2.2.1 15-30 seconds if not connected with previous memory
2.1.2.2.2 Rehearsal allows you to repeat a memory, making it stick
2.1.3 Working Memory
2.1.3.1 Central Executive
2.1.3.1.1 Filters to visual or auditory
2.1.3.1.2 Interacts with long-term

Annotations:

  • Pulls out or puts in memories
2.1.3.2 Visuospatial Sketchpad
2.1.3.2.1 Holds and maintains visual memories
2.1.3.3 Phonological Loop
2.1.3.3.1 Composed mainly of auditory info
2.1.3.3.2 Maintains and rehearses info
2.1.4 Long-term
2.1.4.1 No maximum capacity found (yet)
2.1.4.1.1 Time period of memory determined by many factors
2.1.4.2 Amnesia
2.1.4.2.1 Anterograde

Annotations:

  • Can't form new memories after an incident
2.1.4.2.2 Retrograde

Annotations:

  • Don't remember anything before incident
3 Retrieval
3.1 Retrieval Cue
3.1.1 Stimulus that brings forth a memory
3.1.1.1 Cue could be wrong or too weak to bring memory to forefront
3.2 Recall v. Recognition
3.2.1 Recall
3.2.1.1 Pulling something completely from memory
3.2.2 Recognition
3.2.2.1 Remember parts of recognize something
3.3 Serial Position
3.3.1 Primacy Effect
3.3.1.1 Remembering the first things seen/heard
3.3.2 Recency Effect
3.3.2.1 Remembering the last things seen/heard
3.4 Encoding Specificity
3.4.1 State-dependent retrieval
3.4.1.1 The closer to the original condition, the more easily something can be rememebered

Annotations:

  • Could be a physical or mental state
3.5 Transfer-Appropriate Processing
3.5.1 Process info while learning it in the way you are going to use it later
3.5.1.1 Problem-oriented

Annotations:

  • Remember in a way specific to the problem
3.5.1.2 Fact-Oriented

Annotations:

  • Remembering things in one way. Example: Flashcards
4 Memory Types
4.1 Implicit
4.1.1 Procedural Memories
4.1.1.1 No conscious effort to bring to mind

Annotations:

  • Examples: Riding a bike, breathing
4.1.2 Priming
4.1.2.1 Tendency for one to better recall something if they have something similar in mind
4.2 Explicit
4.2.1 Episodic Memory
4.2.1.1 Autobiographical memories
4.2.2 Semantic Memory
4.2.2.1 Facts/figures/knowledge memory
4.2.3 Facts/info that can be said aloud
5 Biology of Memory
5.1 Brain Structures
5.1.1 Cerebellum
5.1.1.1 "Little brain" (back bottom)
5.1.1.2 Involved in storing motor plans and procedural memory
5.1.2 Striatum
5.1.2.1 Part of the basal ganglia
5.1.2.2 Habitual processes stored here
5.1.3 Cerebral Cortex
5.1.3.1 Outer parts of the brain
5.1.3.2 Where most knowledge is stored

Annotations:

  • Organized in schemas or hierarchies
5.1.4 Hippocampus
5.1.4.1 Memory formation and storage
5.1.4.2 Emotions
5.1.4.3 Consolidation

Annotations:

  • Movement of memory from short to long-term
6 Sins of Memory
6.1 Transience
6.1.1 Things can be forgotten over time
6.1.2 Often occurs between storage phases
6.1.3 Interference
6.1.3.1 Retroactive

Annotations:

  • Something learned recently impairs earlier memories
6.1.3.2 Proactive

Annotations:

  • Something learned earlier impairs recent info
6.2 Absentmindedness
6.2.1 Lapse in attention causes memory failure
6.2.2 Issue with prospective memory

Annotations:

  • To-Do Lists
6.3 Blocking
6.3.1 Failure to retrieve info that one has
6.3.1.1 Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
6.4 Memory Misattribution
6.4.1 Remembering something, but attributing to wrong source memory
6.4.1.1 False recognition and familiarity
6.5 Suggestibility
6.5.1 People believe something happened that didn't
6.5.1.1 Repressed memories may be fabricated
6.6 Bias
6.6.1 Tendency to distort memories based on current knowledge
6.6.1.1 Change Bias

Annotations:

  • Exaggerate the differences between new and old memories
6.6.1.2 Egocentric Bias

Annotations:

  • Remember things in a way that makes oneself look better
6.6.1.3 Consistency Bias

Annotations:

  • Exaggerate the similarities between new and old memories
6.7 Persistence
6.7.1 Replaying of traumatic memories
6.7.1.1 "Flashbulb" Memories

Annotations:

  • Detailed recollection of memory specifics
6.7.1.2 Amygdala is involved along with hippocampus
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