Theories Of Deviance

jsimek
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jsimek
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Theories Of Deviance
  1. Major Perspectives
    1. The Structural Perspective
      1. The Structural Functionalism
        1. Society is a moral phenomenon
          1. - Behave - Wants - Identities - Learned in childhood
          2. Societies with high social integration- High conformity with little deviance
            1. Anomie- people become distant
            2. -Deviance functional for society
              1. - Violations give social response - Deviance reminds what is acceptable or not
            3. Strain Theory
              1. -Culture dictates success - Access limited to certain classes
                1. - Choosing deviant alternatives - Deviance lies in social structure
                2. Differential Opportunity
                  1. Reformulation of Merton- Some groups have less opportunity for success - Not all disadvantaged people have same opportunity for deviance
                    1. Deviant Opportunities
                      1. - Criminal - Conflict - Retreatist
                        1. - Neighborhood Rife with crime - Racial people dominate illegal businesses - Men in leadership posts - Conflict over definitions of deviance
                    2. Feminist Theory
                      1. Patriarchal Structure
                        1. -Responsible for discrimination of women - pervades culture
                          1. - Includes Laws - Women disadvantaged - Male centered
                        2. Conflict Theory
                          1. - Structural view - Society seen as conflictual - Incompatible interests of diverse groups lead to conflict
                        3. The Cultural Perspective
                          1. Control Theory Of Delinquency
                            1. -Focus on micro level - Reverse the question - Ask why and what
                              1. - Social control resides in the extent to develop a bond - Less likely to risk loss - Less deviance if society is able to foster greater bonds and stake
                            2. Subculture Theory
                              1. Deviance was collective act carried out by groups - Multiple groups exist factions within and across groups - Each group has distinct norms and values
                              2. Culture Conflict Theory
                                1. Overlap between American culture and subcultures
                                  1. Differences may lead to conflict
                                    1. - People migrate or cross to another territory - One group invades another - Border area two groups have regular contact
                                2. Reaction Theory
                                  1. - Builds on subcultural conflict idea - Focus on working class - Lower class boys cannot succeed middle class expectations
                                    1. - Status frustration - Negative behavior
                                  2. Lower Class Culture Theory
                                    1. At odds with values
                                      1. - Getting in trouble - Thoughness - Autonomy - Street smarts - Excitement - Fatalistic
                                    2. Differential Association Theory
                                      1. - Actual situational dynamics between macro structures and micro individuals - Socially Learned
                                        1. - Learning from closest intimates - Circle of contacts adopt deviant behavior
                                      2. Drift Theory
                                        1. - Movement into deviant subcultures through a drift - Old circle left - Person drifts between deviance and conformity - No commitment
                                        2. Labeling Theory
                                          1. - Drift between deviance and conformity no longer option once branded as deviant - How people are defined - Interaction between society and the individual
                                      3. Functionalism
                                        1. Crime is normal part of societie
                                          1. - Crime is constant - Crime is collective
                                        2. Social Structure & Cultural Structures
                                          1. -1st- Defines goals - 2nd- Defines controls and regulates
                                          2. Types of Individual adaption
                                            1. - Conformity -Innovation - Ritualism - Retreatism - Rebellion -
                                            2. Control Theory
                                              1. Eements of bond
                                                1. - Attatchments - Commitment -Involvement - Belief
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