Theories of Deviance

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Part II: Theories of Deviance

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Theories of Deviance
1 Structural Functionism
1.1 The morals that individuals are taught constrain their behavior
1.2 Deviance is functional for society
1.3 Durkheim though it was normal/necessary
2 Strain Theory
2.1 Culture dictates success for all citizens but institutional access is limited to middle/upper strata
3 Conflict Theory
3.1 Social conflict arises from incompatible interests (class, politics)
3.2 Crime exists b/c of dominant class interests
4 Feminist Theory
4.1 Patriarchal system oppresses/discriminates women
4.2 Deviance is male centered and subjugates women
5 Culture Conflict Theory
5.1 Subculture norms/values meshed w/American culture conflicts
5.2 3 way of conflict: migration, territory takeover, or culture codes clash
6 Reaction Theory
6.1 Working-class males have highest difficulty succeeding due to subculture
6.2 Creates deviant behavior
7 Lower Class Culture Theory
7.1 Those that follow subculture norms become deviant to middle class norms
8 Differential Opportunity Theory
8.1 Criminal- arise from access to deviant subcultures
8.2 Conflict- attract those with violent attributes
8.3 Retreatist- attract those not inclined to violence but want to withdraw from society
9 Drift Theory
9.1 Cross into deviant subcultures occurs gradually from deviance to legitmacy
9.2 Applies to leaving deviance as well
10 Labeling Theory
10.1 Those caught during deviance are branded as a deviant
10.2 "A deviant is one whom the label has been applied; deviant behavior is behavior people so label"
11 Control Theory of Delinquency
11.1 Relationship between individual and society rather than interaction dynamics
11.2 Elements of the Bond
11.2.1 Attachment
11.2.2 Commitment
11.2.3 Involvement
11.2.4 Belief
12 Differential Association Theory
12.1 Deviant behavior is socially learned from friends/family
12.2 Criminal and non-criminal behavior express same needs/values
12.3 Become criminal b/c of criminal pattern contacts and isolation from noncriminal contacts
13 American Dream Cultural Axioms
13.1 Deflection of criticism of social structure onto oneself
13.2 Social power preservation by having lower class identify themselves with upper class
13.3 Less membership into society for those that fail to conform
14 Types of Individual Adaptation
14.1 Conformity- widely used due to cultural goals/institutionalized means
14.2 Innovation- access to cultural goals but no institutionalized means
14.3 Ritualism- rejects cultural goals and abides institutionalized norms
14.4 Retreatism- in the society but not of it (follow neither)
14.5 Rebellion- leads to a new/changed social structure (neither for nor against)
15 Constructionism
15.1 Redefine social problems as claims that various conditions constituted social problems
15.2 Focused of deviance, medicalization, macro level
15.3 Emphasizes role of interpretation, assigning meaning, understanding deviant behavior classification
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