1 control theory states that social control is directly
affected by the strength of social bonds and that deviance
results from a feeling of disconnection from society
1.1 Individuals who believe they are a part of society are
less likely to commit crimes against it.
1.1.1 conforming behavior is reinforced by individuals'
attachment to norm-abiding members of society; by their
commitment to, and investment in, a legitimate life and
identity (e.g., earning educational credentials and a
22.214.171.124 by their level of involvement in legitimate activities and
organizations; and by their subscription to the commonly held
beliefs and values characterizing normative society.
126.96.36.199.1 People who violate norms have a flaw in one or more of these bonds
to society and can be brought back into the normative ranks by
strengthening and reinforcing those weak bonds.
188.8.131.52.1.1 Hirschi's perspective is more social psychological than structural
2 Travis Hirschi
3 four types of social bonds that connect people to society:
3.1 1. Attachment measures our connections to others. When we are closely attached to people, we
worry about their opinions of us. People conform to society’s norms in order to gain approval (and
prevent disapproval) from family, friends, and romantic partners.
3.1.1 2. Commitment refers to the investments we make in the community. A well-respected local
businesswoman who volunteers at her synagogue and is a member of the neighborhood block
organization has more to lose from committing a crime than a woman who doesn’t have a career or
ties to the community.
184.108.40.206 3. Similarly, levels of involvement, or participation in socially legitimate activities, lessen a person’s
likelihood of deviance. Children who are members of little league baseball teams have fewer family
220.127.116.11.1 4. The final bond, belief, is an agreement on common values in society. If a person views social
values as beliefs, he or she will conform to them. An environmentalist is more likely to pick up trash
in a park because a clean environment is a social value to him
4 ELEMENTS OF THE BOND
4.1.1 Durkheim: " We are moral beings to the
extent that we are social beings."
18.104.22.168 We are moral being to the extent that we
have internalized the norms of society
22.214.171.124.1 If a person does not care about the wishes &
expectations of other people, is insensitive to the
opinions of others then he is not bound by norms &
is free to deviate
126.96.36.199.1.1 The essence of internalization of norms,
conscience or superego thus lies in the
attachment of the individual to others
188.8.131.52.1.1.1 F. Ivan Nye's "internal control" and "indirect control" refer to
the same element, although we avoid the problem of
explaining changes over time by locating the "conscience" in th
ebond to others rather than making it part of the personality.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Attachment is the sociological counterpart of the superego or conscience
18.104.22.168.1.1 the control theory assumes the existence of a common value system within the society or group
whose norms are being violated.
22.214.171.124.1.1.1 The question is, Why does a man violate the rules in which he believes?
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 the person is assumed to have been socialized (perhaps imperfectly) into the group whose rules he is violating; deviance is not a
question of one group imposing its rles on the members of another group
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1 We not only assume the deviant has believed the rules but we also assume he believes the rules even as he violates them
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.1 given the control theory's assumptions about motivation, if both the deviant and the non deviant believe the deviant act is wrong,
how do we account for the fact that one commits it and the other does not?
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.1.1 Control theories take 2 approaches to this problem
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 APPROACH #1 - beliefs are treated as mere words that mean little or
nothing if the other forms of control are missing
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1 Semantic dementia - the disassociation between rational faculties
and emotional control, characteristic of the psychopath
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1.1 beliefs drop out of the picture; since they do not differentiate between
deviants and non deviants, they are in the same class as "language" or
any other characteristic common to all members of the group
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 APPROACH #2 - the deviant rationalizes his behavior so that he can at
once violate the rule and maintain his belief in it.
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1 advanced by Cressey - rationalizations called "verbalizations"
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1.1 advanced by Sykes & Matza - rationalizations called "techniques of neutralization"
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1.1.1 either occur prior to the commission of the deviant act
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 if the neutralization is successful, the person will commit the deviant act
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1 So, why neutralize?
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1.1 In sociology and criminology, strain theory states that social structures within
society may pressure citizens to commit crime
22.214.171.124.2 Involvement or engrossment in conventional activities is thus often part of a control theory
126.96.36.199.2.1 the assumption is that a person may be simply too busy doing conventional things
to find tine to engage in deviant behavior
188.8.131.52.2.1.1 To the extent that he is engrossed in conventional activities, he cannot even think about deviant
acts, let alone act out his inclinations
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 David Matza & Gresham M. Sykes suggest that delinquents have the values of a leisure class
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1 In the end, the leisure of the adolescent produces a set of values, which in turn, leads to the delinquency
126.96.36.199 Of all passions, that which inclineth men least to break the laws, is fear. Nay, excepting
some generous naturesm it is the only thing, when there is the appearance of profit or
pleasure by breaking the laws, that makes men keep them."
188.8.131.52.1 Few would deny that men on occasion obey the rules simply from
fear of the consequences. (also called conformity)
184.108.40.206.1.1 A person invests time, energy, herself in a certain line of activity. If deviant
behavior is considered, she must consider the risk of losing the investment
she has made in conventional behavior
220.127.116.11.1.1.1 commitment is the counterpart of the ego or common sense
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 The concept of commitment assumes the organization of society is such that the
interest of most persons would be endangered if they were to engage in criminal
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1 boys aspiring to careers in professional thievery are judged by their "honesty"
& "reliability"...traits traditionally in demand among seekers of office boys