Holly Bamford
Mind Map by Holly Bamford, updated more than 1 year ago
Holly Bamford
Created by Holly Bamford almost 5 years ago


Biology AS mind map

Resource summary



1 Biological molecules
1.1 Carbohydrates
1.1.1 Sugars, Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose Starch α glucose Plants Medium-term storage Tight double helix Branched areas allow hydrolysis Cellulose β glucose Plants Cell wall Straight chains Hydrogen bonds between chains Glycogen α glucose Animals energy storage
1.1.2 Monosaccharides All carbohydrates made from Monomers Glucose, galactose and fructose Glucose α glucose H then OH β glucose OH then H 2 make a disaccharide
1.1.3 Disaccharides Condensation reaction Forms glyosidic bond Loss of water molecule
1.1.4 Polysaccharides
1.2 Lipids
1.2.1 contain C, H little O
1.2.2 Dissolve in solvents NOT water
1.2.3 phospholipids Hydrophobic 'tails' 2 fatty acid tails Hydrophillic 'heads' Glycerol + phosphate group
1.2.4 Saturated-solid no C=C Max. no. of H atoms
1.2.5 Unsaturated kink C=C
1.2.6 Triglycerides Condensation reaction Ester Bond Carboxyl group
1.3 Proteins
1.3.1 Contains C, O, H, N, S
1.3.2 Amino acid is monomer Acidic Carboxyl group Joined by Condensation reaction Peptide bond Amino Group
1.3.3 Structure Primary Linear sequence of amino acids Peptide bonds only secondary Polypeptide chain coiled or twisted α helix β sheet Hydrogen & peptide bonds Tertiary Compact globular chain Disulphide (covalent) Ionic Hydrogen & peptide bonds Quaternety More than one poplypeptide chain
1.3.4 Globular Metabolic functions Tertiary structure Compact shape Not stable
1.3.5 Fibrous Structural functions Long chains wound into helix Linked by cross bridges very stable
2 Biochemical tests
2.1 Test for reducing sugar
2.1.1 Add Benedicts Heat in water bath
2.1.2 +ve result: brick red colour
2.2 Test for non reducing sugar
2.2.1 Heat in water bath w/h HCL Neutralise w/h NaOH Add Benedicts Heat in water bath
2.2.2 +ve result: brick red colour
2.3 Test for startch
2.3.1 Add Iodine
2.3.2 +ve result: turns blue/black
2.4 Test for proteins
2.4.1 Add Biuret Solution
2.4.2 +ve result: turns lilac
2.5 Tests for lipids
2.5.1 Add ethanol and shake
2.5.2 +ve result: cloudy white
3 DNA and RNA
3.1 DNA
3.1.1 Structure DNA is a polymer made up of nucleotides Nucleotide Nitrogenous base Adenine===Thymine Guanine===Cytosine Phosphate group Deoxyribose sugar 5 carbon One less oxygen than RNA Phosphodiester bonds Between Bases phosphate and sugar Polynucletide chains Joined by hydrogen bonds Via condensation reactions reativley weak Double helix makes stronger
3.1.2 Replication DNA Polymerase DNA Helicase Hydrolysis Condensation reaction Semi-Conservative Replication Evidence Meselson and Stahl
3.2 RNA
3.2.1 Differences to DNA Ribose sugar Single standed Adenine===Uracil Guanine===Cytosine Shorter
4.1 Adenosine Triphosphate
4.1.1 Nucleotide derivative Adenosine
4.2 Use
4.2.1 Energy stored in high energy bonds between phosphate groups Coupled w/h other reactions Active transport Minimises energy loss
4.2.2 Phosphorylation
4.3 Differences
4.3.1 No. phospahte ATP Three ADP Two AMP One
5 Cells
5.1 Eukaryotic cells
5.1.1 Animal and Plant Nucleus Nucleolus RNA and ribosomes made Nuclear pore allows movement of mRNA Holes in the membrane Cell membrane Phospholipid bilayed Polar hydrophillic heads Polar means electrons are not equally shared Non-polar hydrophobic fatty acids Non-polar means electrons are equally shared cholesterol sits between phospholipids gives membrane more stability Glycoprotein acts as antigen Recognise as self Glycolipid extrinsic protein Lying on the surface of bilayer Intrinsic protein all the way through the bilayer Fluid mosaic model constantly changes shape Cytoplasm Semi-liquid most chemical reactions happen here contains dissolved ions Ribosomes aid manufacture of proteins Mitochondria energy release Aerobic respiration ATP Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth no ribosomes Rough Ribosomes Golgi body Flattened sacks separated by a membrane vesicle Transport vessel Made of phospholipds Centrioles microtubles
5.1.2 Plants only Chloroplast Contains chlorophyll Enable photosynthesis Vacuole Important for structure contains mineral ions in water Cell wall Structure
6 Microscopy
6.1 Resolution
6.1.1 The smallest distance between two particles which allows them to be distinguished as separate artlicles
6.1.2 Half the wavelength of the medium used
6.2 Microscopes
6.2.1 TEM Best resolution Beam of electrons pass through specimen Detected on a fluorescent screen Thin sections of specimen needed
6.2.2 SEM 3D image Specimen coated in heavy metals Thicker structures can be seen Electrons do not have to pass through sample Resolution is lower than TEM
6.3 Magnification
7 Enzymes
7.1 Inhibitors
7.1.1 Competetive
7.1.2 Non-competetive
7.2 Stucture
7.2.1 Proteins Globular
7.2.2 Active site A specific pattern of amino acids that is complementary to a particular substrate Model Lock and key Induced fit
7.3 Biological catalyst
7.4 Effects on rate of reaction
7.4.1 Temperature Increase in temp Increase in RoR Until optimum Increase in kinetic energy More successful collisions More enzyme-substrate complexes formed Increase rate of reaction Higher than optimum High temp. causes the bonds in the tertiary structure to break Denatures active site Less enzyme-substrate complexes are formed Decrease rate of reaction
7.4.2 pH Not optimum Excess H+ and OH- ions Interfere with charges in bonds of tertiary structure Causes them to break Less enzyme substrate complexes formed Decrease rate of reaction optimum No excess H+ and OH- ions
7.4.3 Substrate conc <----
7.4.4 Enzyme conc Increase More enzymes to collide w/h substrate More enzyme-substrate complexes formed Increase rate of reaction Up to a point Decrease Less enzymes to collide w/h substrate Less enzyme-substrate complexes formed Decrease rate of reaction
8 Diffusion
8.1 Osmosis
8.1.1 Water potential Higher the Ψ purer the water 0Ψ= pure water From an are of high Ψ to an area of low Ψ
8.1.2 Solute potential
8.1.3 Partially permeable membrane
8.1.4 Cells Plant Turgidity plasmolysis Animal haemolysis
8.2 Definition


  • The natural passive net movement of the particles within a gas or a liquid from a region of high concentration gradient to  an area of lower concentration until a dynamic equilibrium is reached
8.2.1 Passive Not requiring energy
8.2.2 Net movement overall movement
8.2.3 dynamic equilibrium Equal overall but still particles moving
9 Active Transport
9.1 Against the conc. gradient
9.1.1 From an area of low to high
9.2 Requires energy
9.2.1 In the form of ATP
9.3 Uses carrier proteins
9.3.1 At like pumps
9.4 Uses
9.4.1 Small Intestine Uptake of glucose and amino acids
9.4.2 Plant roots Absorption of mineral ions
9.4.3 Kidneys Excretion of hydrogen ions and urea
9.4.4 Muscle cells Exchange of K and Na ions and minerals
10 Cell replication
10.1 Meiosis
10.1.1 Genetic variation Recombination of homologous chromosomes Crossing over Independent segregation of homologous chromosomes Order in which chromosomes line up along side their homologous pair
10.1.2 Mutations


10.2 Mitosis
10.2.1 Interphase S DNA replicated G1 period of cell growth G2 2nd period of cell growth
10.2.2 Prophase Chromosomes condense nuclear envelope disinigrates
10.2.3 Metaphase chromosomes align at the equator
10.2.4 Anaphase Chromosomes pulled apart by spindle fibres
10.2.5 Telophase Nuclei separate Daughter nuclei are genetically identical
11 Digestion
11.1 Enzymes
11.1.1 Carnohydrases Starch to maltose Amalyse Salivary and pancreatic Maltose to glucose Maltase Hydrolysis Hydrolysis Breaks glycosidic bond
11.1.2 Lipases Triglycerides Lipase Monoglycerides Fatty acids Glycerol
11.1.3 Proteases Endopeptidases Exopeptidases Dipeptidases
11.2 Absorption
11.2.1 Carbohydrates
11.2.2 Lipids
11.2.3 Proteins
11.3 Adaptations of small intestine
11.3.1 Villi and microvilli Increase surface are
11.3.2 Muscle tissue Remain in contact with food
11.3.3 Blood flow Conc. gradient
11.3.4 single cell Short diffusion pathway
12 Water
12.1 Dipolar
12.1.1 Hydrogen bonds form between oxygen and water Of different water molecules
12.2 High specific heat capacity
12.2.1 Hydrogen bonds more energy required to break these Boiling point increases
12.3 Large latent heat of evaporation
12.3.1 Lot energy require to evaporate 1 gram of water Why sweat is an effective way of cooling in animals
12.4 Strong cohesion
12.4.1 Tendency of water molecules to stick together Surface tension Allows water to be pulled up tubes xylem in plants
12.5 The role of inorganic ions
12.5.1 H+ Determining pH Function of enzymes
12.5.2 PO3+ ATP storing energy DNA Structural role
12.5.3 Fe 2+/3+ Haemoglobin Transport of oxygen
12.5.4 Na+ Transport of glucose and amino acids Na/K pump
13 Selection
13.1 Adaptations
13.1.1 Due to mutations
13.2 Types
14 Classification
15 Biodiversity
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