Mind Map by limyeng12, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by limyeng12 over 6 years ago



Resource summary

  1. Effects of thermal energy
    1. Effects on matter
      1. Solids expands and contracts the least followed by liquid then gas.
        1. When cooled, solids, liqiuds and gases contract and decrease in volume.
          1. When heated, solids, liquids and gases expand and increase in volume
          2. Effects on everyday life
            1. Problems
              1. Laboratory glassware cracking when heated due to uneven expansion
                1. Telephone and electrical wires snapping on cold days due to contraction
                  1. MRT and railway tracks wrap on hot days due to expansion
                    1. Bridges cracking on hot days due to expansion
                      1. Tiled and concrete pavements cracking on hot days due to expansion
                        1. Water pipes cracking or bursting on hot days due to expansion
                        2. Solutions
                          1. Water pipes are built with expansion bends to allow space for espansion
                            1. Laboratory glassware is made of Pyrex glass which expands very little when heated
                              1. Telephone and electrical wires are hung loosely to allow space for contraction
                                1. Bridges are built with rollers on one side to allow expansion
                                  1. Pavements and tiles have expansion gaps that allows space for expansion
                              2. Transfer of thermal energy
                                1. Conduction
                                  1. Conduction is the process of thermal energy transfer through a medium from one particle to another
                                    1. All matters are conductors of thermal energy
                                      1. Solids are generally better conductors of thermal energy as compared to liquid and gas
                                      2. Convection
                                        1. Convection is the process in which thermal energy is transmitted by the movement of liquid or gas. It cannot occur in solid
                                          1. Occurs through a convection current
                                          2. Radiation
                                            1. Radiation is the process in which thermal energy is transferred by electromagnetic waves. It does not require a medium, thus it can occur in a vacuum
                                              1. Factors that affect rate of radiation
                                                1. Nature of the surface of the body; colour, reflectivity and texture. Surfaces which are dark in colour, matte and rough are better radiators of heat compare to surfaces which are light in colour, shiny and smooth
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