Nature of Memory

Neha Nanji
Mind Map by Neha Nanji, updated more than 1 year ago
Neha Nanji
Created by Neha Nanji over 6 years ago


Mind map of Short term and Long term memory. Source: The Complete Companion: Year 1 and AS for AQA Psychology by Mike Cardwell and Cara Flanagan.

Resource summary

Nature of Memory
  1. Short-term memory
    1. Memory for immediate events. Has a short duration (measured in seconds/minutes). Limited capacity about 4 chunks. Coded semantically.
      1. Capacity
        1. Limited
          1. Can be assessed using digit span
            1. In 1887 Joseph Jacobs used this method to assess STM capacity
              1. Results: Average span for digits: 9.3 items. Average span for letters: 7.3
                1. Jacobs suggested that it's easier to recall numbers rather than letters because there are only 9 digits whereas there are 26 letters.
            2. "The magic number 7±2"
              1. Article written by George Miller in 1956.
                1. In the article he reviewed psychological research and concluded that the span of immediate memory is about 7 items - sometimes more, sometimes less.
                  1. Noted that people can note 7 dots flashed onto a screen but not many more.
                    1. The same is true for musical notes, letters and words.
                    2. Also found that people can recall 5 words as well as they can recall letters - we can chunk things together to remember more
              2. Measure of how much can be held in memory, represented in bits of info, such as number of digits
              3. Duration
                1. Lloyd and Margret Peterson 1959
                  1. Experiment: 24 students, each tested over 8 trials. Each given a consonant syllable and a 3 digit number (e.g. THX 512). Asked to recall the consonant syllable after retention interval of 3, 6, 9,12, 15 or 18 seconds. During retention interval they had to count backwards from their 3 digit number
                    1. Results (on average): 90% correct over 3 seconds, 20% correct over 9 seconds and only 2% correct after 18 seconds.
                      1. Suggesting that STM has a very short duration - less than 18 seconds - as long as rehearsal is prevented
                  2. Measure of how long a memory lasts before it is no longer available.hg
                  3. Coding
                    1. The way information is changed so that it can be stored in memory. Information enters the brain via the senses. It is then stored in various forms such as visual (like pictures), acoustic (sounds), semantic (meaning of the experience)
                      1. Alan Baddeley 1966a 1966b
                        1. Used word lists (like the examples above) to test the effects of acoustic and semantic similarity on STM and LTM
                          1. Found that participants had difficulty remembering acoustically similar words in STM but not in LTM
                            1. Whereas acoustically similar words posed little problem for STM but led to muddled LTM
                          2. Acoustic and semantic coding
                            1. Acoustically similar: cat,mat, rat, fat ,hat
                              1. Semantically similar: great, big, large, huge
                          3. Long-term Memory
                            1. Your memory for events that have happened in the past. Lasting from 2 minutes to 100 years. LTM has potentially unlimited duration and capacity and tends to be coded semantically.
                              1. Capacity
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