Ancient Indian literature

Laxman Kumawat
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Laxman Kumawat
Created by Laxman Kumawat almost 5 years ago


Ancient Indian literature

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Ancient Indian literature
1 Brahminical epics
1.1 After Vedas, many Brahminical epics were composed. Wherein vedic literature and directive principles regarding behaviour has been explained broadly. Aranyakas, An appendix of Brahminical literature gives information on various religious rituals (samskaras) and practices.
2 Upanishadic literature
2.1 Gives us a vivid discription and analysis of the beginning of the universe, the mysteries of life and death, materialistic and spiritual world etc.
3 Vedanta
3.1 Deals with the religious practices and rituals, grammar, astrology and astronomy. Panini's Ashtadhyayi, a northworthy book of Sanskrit grammar, is the most important book developed during this period.
4 Vedas
4.1 Yajurveda
4.1.1 Focuses on the recitation of verses.
4.2 Samveda
4.3 Artharvaveda
4.3.1 Describes various types of ritual and samskaras.
4.4 Rigveda
4.4.1 Consists of 1028 verses. Most of them are prayers of God. They were used during Yagnas. Among the verses, those worshipping Usha are fascinating.
5 Epics : 'The Ramayana' and 'The Mahabharata'
5.1 Are the two great Indian epics, written probably around the 2nd century. Mahabharata is the world's largest epic, consisting of one lakh verses, is based on the war between the Pandavas and the Kauravas. Bhagwad Gita, the holy book of Hindus, is a part of Mahabharata. The Ramayana, the smaller epic describes the story of Lord Rama of Ayodhya.
6 Ancient Sanskrit Literature
6.1 A lot of sanskrit literature was produced during the ancient era, which contained a good combination of religious and worldly aspects of life. The many scriptures and smruti granthas were composed. These scriptures dealt with science and philosophy. A famous book on management, arts, mathematics and science called 'Arthashashtra' was written by Kautilya during this period.
7 Buddhist Literature
7.1 The earlier Buddhist Literature was written in Pali. As it is divided into three sections, namely 'Sukta Pitika', 'Vinaya Pitika', 'Abhidhamma Pitika', it is also known as 'Tripitika'. 'Milind Pahno' is an important Buddhist scripture, which consists in it dialogues between the Indo-Greek ruler Minander (Milind) and Nagsen the Buddhist Philosopher. Jataka stories are also a part of Buddhist literature. Later, many Buddhist epics were composed in Sankrit.
8 Drama and Poetry
8.1 Sanskrit drama and poetry began to grow in the Gupta Age. Kalidas, Bhavabhuti, Bharavi, Bhartrihari, Bana, Bhatta, Magha, etc. belonged to this period and they produced a great deal of literature, on various subjects. The famous books, 'Panchtantra' and 'Kathasaritsagar', were also written during this period.
9 Gujarati Prose and Poetry
9.1 From ancient time, verses were composed in old Gujarati. In couse of time, Gujarati language developed and many literary works were composed in it. Narshinh Mehta, Mirabai, Dayaram, Akho, Premanand, Pritam and others composed beautiful verses, songs, garba, narrative poems, chhappas etc. After that the literary artists like : Narmad, Navalram, Kishorlal Mashruwala, Mahipatram, Rupram, Govardhan Ram Tripathi and others encriched Gujarati literature with their works.
10 The Dravidian literature
10.1 Dravidian Languages - Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam developed their own Scripts and languages. Tamil is the oldest of these. Famous works are 'Ettutokai', 'Tolikappiyam' and 'Patthupattu'. Thiruvalluvar's 'Kural' deals with manys aspects of life and religion. The 'Shilappadikaram' and the 'Manimekhalai' are some of the most famous Tamil works.
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