1.1 After Vedas, many Brahminical epics were
composed. Wherein vedic literature and directive
principles regarding behaviour has been
explained broadly. Aranyakas, An appendix of
Brahminical literature gives information on
various religious rituals (samskaras) and
2 Upanishadic literature
2.1 Gives us a vivid discription and analysis of
the beginning of the universe, the
mysteries of life and death, materialistic
and spiritual world etc.
3.1 Deals with the religious practices and rituals,
grammar, astrology and astronomy. Panini's
Ashtadhyayi, a northworthy book of Sanskrit
grammar, is the most important book
developed during this period.
4.1.1 Focuses on the recitation
4.3.1 Describes various types of ritual
4.4.1 Consists of 1028 verses. Most of
them are prayers of God. They
were used during Yagnas. Among
the verses, those worshipping
Usha are fascinating.
5 Epics : 'The Ramayana' and 'The Mahabharata'
5.1 Are the two great Indian epics, written probably around the 2nd century. Mahabharata is the world's largest epic,
consisting of one lakh verses, is based on the war between the Pandavas and the Kauravas. Bhagwad Gita, the
holy book of Hindus, is a part of Mahabharata. The Ramayana, the smaller epic describes the story of Lord Rama
6 Ancient Sanskrit Literature
6.1 A lot of sanskrit literature was produced during the ancient era, which contained a good combination of religious and
worldly aspects of life. The many scriptures and smruti granthas were composed. These scriptures dealt with science
and philosophy. A famous book on management, arts, mathematics and science called 'Arthashashtra' was written
by Kautilya during this period.
7 Buddhist Literature
7.1 The earlier Buddhist Literature was written in Pali. As it is divided into three sections, namely 'Sukta Pitika', 'Vinaya
Pitika', 'Abhidhamma Pitika', it is also known as 'Tripitika'. 'Milind Pahno' is an important Buddhist scripture, which
consists in it dialogues between the Indo-Greek ruler Minander (Milind) and Nagsen the Buddhist Philosopher.
Jataka stories are also a part of Buddhist literature. Later, many Buddhist epics were composed in Sankrit.
8 Drama and Poetry
8.1 Sanskrit drama and poetry began to grow in the Gupta Age. Kalidas, Bhavabhuti, Bharavi, Bhartrihari,
Bana, Bhatta, Magha, etc. belonged to this period and they produced a great deal of literature, on
various subjects. The famous books, 'Panchtantra' and 'Kathasaritsagar', were also written during
9 Gujarati Prose and Poetry
9.1 From ancient time, verses were composed in old Gujarati. In
couse of time, Gujarati language developed and many literary
works were composed in it. Narshinh Mehta, Mirabai,
Dayaram, Akho, Premanand, Pritam and others composed
beautiful verses, songs, garba, narrative poems, chhappas etc.
After that the literary artists like : Narmad, Navalram,
Kishorlal Mashruwala, Mahipatram, Rupram, Govardhan Ram
Tripathi and others encriched Gujarati literature with their
10 The Dravidian literature
10.1 Dravidian Languages - Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and
Malayalam developed their own Scripts and
languages. Tamil is the oldest of these. Famous
works are 'Ettutokai', 'Tolikappiyam' and
'Patthupattu'. Thiruvalluvar's 'Kural' deals with
manys aspects of life and religion. The
'Shilappadikaram' and the 'Manimekhalai' are some
of the most famous Tamil works.