ALEXANDER II REFORMS (1861 - 1881) - MILITARY

Chloe Fairbrother
Mind Map by Chloe Fairbrother, updated more than 1 year ago
Chloe Fairbrother
Created by Chloe Fairbrother over 5 years ago
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AS - Level History - Russia Mind Map on ALEXANDER II REFORMS (1861 - 1881) - MILITARY, created by Chloe Fairbrother on 09/28/2015.

Resource summary

ALEXANDER II REFORMS (1861 - 1881) - MILITARY
1 Undertaken by Dmitri Milyutin (Minister of War)
1.1 Shared views with other members of the RUSSIAN INTELLIGENTSIA that serform was MORALLY WRONG, as well being a factor in holding Russia back ECONOMICALLY and WEAKENING the country's 'Great Power Status.'
1.2 Niklai Milyutin
1.2.1 Brother to Dmitri Milyutin.
2 UNIVERSAL CONSCRIPTION introduced.
2.1 Could be AVOIDED if medical evidence provided, or if students were looking to complete their studies.
2.2 ALL social classes were liable for military service; aged 21.
2.3 Standard military service REDUCED to 15 years (6 active, 9 in reserve).
2.4 (1962 - 1870) The RESERVE INCREASED from 200,000 to over 550,000
3 + OFFICER TRAINING was radically improved.
3.1 + MILITARY COLLEGES established; now admitted NON-NOBLES.
3.2 + STAFF COLLEGES were established, with high standards offering accelerated promotion for graduates.
3.2.1 + Specialised schools for the ARTILLERY and ENGINEERS.
3.2.2 + Education made COMPULSORY for commission!
4 + CORPARAL PUNISHMENTS were less severe.
4.1 + 'FLOGGING' was abolished.
5 + MILITARY COLONIES discontinued.
5.1 + Housed in BARRACKS instead.
6 + Better PROVISIONING and MEDICAL CARE established.
7 SUCCESSFUL?
7.1 YES
7.1.1 These were IMPROVEMENTS!
7.1.2 SIGNIFICANT SAVING in government expenditure! Due to a SMALLER standing army, supported by a RESERVE that could be kept mobilised.
7.1.3 An attempt to BREAK DOWN CLASS PRIVILEGE and create a sense of MERITOCRACY within the army!
7.1.4 Result = a smaller, more professional, less brutal and less class-ridden army!
7.2 NO
7.2.1 Those were 'better-off' and who had influence were able to find SUBSTITUTES to take their place!
7.2.2 OFFICER CLASS remained majoritively ARISTOCRATIC!
7.2.3 Problems of SUPPLY and LEADERSHIP would CONTINUE in the future...
7.2.3.1 Turkey (1877 - 1878)
7.2.3.2 Germany (1914 - 1917)
7.2.3.3 Japan (1904 - 1905)
7.2.4 Still heavily reliant on UNEDUCATED and ILLITERATE PEASANT CONSCRIPTS; reducing the effectiveness of TRAINING!
7.2.5 Opposed by the NOBILITY; feared that their CHILDREN would 'mix' with the lower classes.
7.2.6 MERCHANTS objected; didn't want their sons to do COMPULSORY SERVICE!
7.2.7 A 'fully professional' army posed threats to the AUTOCRACY! So, many UNTRAINED ROYAL FAMILY MEMBERS were appointed KEY MILITARY SERVICES to keep a HIGH PROPORTION of the NOBILITY among the commanding officers team!
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