Stages of Attachment

Naima Shah
Mind Map by Naima Shah, updated more than 1 year ago
Naima Shah
Created by Naima Shah over 4 years ago
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mind map on stages of attachment
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Stages of Attachment
1 Schaffer & Emerson
1.1 Aim: provide descriptive data about attachment, intensity of attachments, any individual differences, two measures used. 1) Stranger fear 2) separation anxiety
1.1.1 Procedure: longitudinal, naturalistic observation monthly follow up visit 18 months later, 60 infants, asked mothers about infants in situations of separation, mothers kept diary in 7 situations. Mothers interviewed.
1.1.1.1 Results: several stages found in attachment, asocial, indiscriminate, discriminate, multiple
1.1.1.1.1 Conclusion: infant emotional dependence on caregiver not related to filling in psychological needs but to responsiveness so attachments formed with those who responded accurately to signals
1.1.1.1.1.1 Evaluation: good external validity, longitudinal study, good sample size, little behaviour from infants at early stage,conflicting evidence, multiple attachments = special significance, biased mothers, also depend on personality and temperament.
2 Grossman
2.1 longitudinal study on both parents' behaviour and its relationship to quality of attachment.
2.1.1 mothers and fathers quality not related
2.1.1.1 in adolescence: father less important
2.1.1.1.1 father: play and stimulation
2.1.1.1.1.1 Mothers: more nurturing
3 Geiger
3.1 play interactions with father more exciting than mothers, mothers more affectionate
3.1.1 playmates > caregivers
3.1.1.1 Lamb: children prefer interacting with fathers when positive
4 Hrdy
4.1 fathers less able to detect low levels of distress
4.1.1 fathers who are main caregivers quickly develop sensitivity
5 Belsky
5.1 high levels of marital intimacy related to secure fathet/infant attachments
6 Brown et al
6.1 high levels of supportive coparenting related to secure attachments
6.1.1 between fathers not mothers, important for fathers
7 Evaluation/application
7.1 fathers/attachment research confusing- only recent
7.1.1 father role is secondary traditionally
7.1.1.1 Mothers instinct
7.1.1.1.1 same sex families, no difference
7.1.1.1.1.1 fathers not important?
7.1.1.2 parents encouraged to co parent
7.1.1.3 secure attachment with father- better with peers
7.1.1.3.1 fathers help reduce mothers' stress, self esteem, time away from childcare
7.1.1.3.2 equally sensitive
8 Pleck- quality > time with father
8.1 Lamb- fathers style of parenting
8.1.1 interaction, accessibility, responsibility
8.1.1.1 Men staying home to look after children tripled in last 15 years
9 Factors involving paternal involvement
9.1 Cultural factors - men considered breadwinners, involved in play, instruction and guidance
9.1.1 Economic factors- S. Africa men work hundreds of miles away, long hours but increase in fem. labour force
9.1.1.1 Social policies - paternal leave
9.1.1.1.1 Biological factors- women adapted to feed and nurture, produce oestrogen
9.1.1.1.1.1 Child- Freeman found male children prefer father as attachment and attached till late childhood/early adolescence
9.1.1.1.1.1.1 Temperament- Manlove found fathers less likely to be involved if child has difficult temperament
9.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Research with father inconsistent, secondary role has ethical issues, socially sensitive
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