Stages of Attachment

Naima Shah
Mind Map by Naima Shah, updated more than 1 year ago
Naima Shah
Created by Naima Shah over 4 years ago


mind map on stages of attachment

Resource summary

Stages of Attachment
1 Schaffer & Emerson
1.1 Aim: provide descriptive data about attachment, intensity of attachments, any individual differences, two measures used. 1) Stranger fear 2) separation anxiety
1.1.1 Procedure: longitudinal, naturalistic observation monthly follow up visit 18 months later, 60 infants, asked mothers about infants in situations of separation, mothers kept diary in 7 situations. Mothers interviewed. Results: several stages found in attachment, asocial, indiscriminate, discriminate, multiple Conclusion: infant emotional dependence on caregiver not related to filling in psychological needs but to responsiveness so attachments formed with those who responded accurately to signals Evaluation: good external validity, longitudinal study, good sample size, little behaviour from infants at early stage,conflicting evidence, multiple attachments = special significance, biased mothers, also depend on personality and temperament.
2 Grossman
2.1 longitudinal study on both parents' behaviour and its relationship to quality of attachment.
2.1.1 mothers and fathers quality not related in adolescence: father less important father: play and stimulation Mothers: more nurturing
3 Geiger
3.1 play interactions with father more exciting than mothers, mothers more affectionate
3.1.1 playmates > caregivers Lamb: children prefer interacting with fathers when positive
4 Hrdy
4.1 fathers less able to detect low levels of distress
4.1.1 fathers who are main caregivers quickly develop sensitivity
5 Belsky
5.1 high levels of marital intimacy related to secure fathet/infant attachments
6 Brown et al
6.1 high levels of supportive coparenting related to secure attachments
6.1.1 between fathers not mothers, important for fathers
7 Evaluation/application
7.1 fathers/attachment research confusing- only recent
7.1.1 father role is secondary traditionally Mothers instinct same sex families, no difference fathers not important? parents encouraged to co parent secure attachment with father- better with peers fathers help reduce mothers' stress, self esteem, time away from childcare equally sensitive
8 Pleck- quality > time with father
8.1 Lamb- fathers style of parenting
8.1.1 interaction, accessibility, responsibility Men staying home to look after children tripled in last 15 years
9 Factors involving paternal involvement
9.1 Cultural factors - men considered breadwinners, involved in play, instruction and guidance
9.1.1 Economic factors- S. Africa men work hundreds of miles away, long hours but increase in fem. labour force Social policies - paternal leave Biological factors- women adapted to feed and nurture, produce oestrogen Child- Freeman found male children prefer father as attachment and attached till late childhood/early adolescence Temperament- Manlove found fathers less likely to be involved if child has difficult temperament Research with father inconsistent, secondary role has ethical issues, socially sensitive
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