ALEXANDER II REFORMS: LOCAL GOVERNMENT (1864 - 1870)

Chloe Fairbrother
Mind Map by Chloe Fairbrother, updated more than 1 year ago
Chloe Fairbrother
Created by Chloe Fairbrother over 4 years ago
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AS - Level History - Russia Mind Map on ALEXANDER II REFORMS: LOCAL GOVERNMENT (1864 - 1870), created by Chloe Fairbrother on 10/11/2015.

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ALEXANDER II REFORMS: LOCAL GOVERNMENT (1864 - 1870)
1 The 'ZEMSTVA'
1.1 Government introduced PROVINCIAL and DISTRICT councils.
1.2 *1864
1.3 Assemblies/Councils were to be ELECTED by nobles, town dwellers, the Church and peasants.
1.3.1 System of separate ELECTORAL COLLEGES - peasants, nobles, the Church and townspeople - to make up the voting procedure.
1.3.1.1 - HOWEVER... the arrangement of thesystem was rigged to allow the NOBILITY to DOMINATE!
1.3.1.1.1 - Despite SOME peasant representation, these 'people assemblies' typically attracted doctors, lawyers, teachers and scientists; who, disappointingly, became more interested in criticising and debating about the government.
1.4 - Electoral system favoured the NOBILITY!
1.4.1 40% members of DISTRICT zemstva
1.4.2 >70% members of PROVINCIAL zemstva.
1.5 Provinces where RUSSIANS formed the MAJORITY of the POPULATION and RULING ELITE.
1.5.1 (1864 = 19 provinces, with Zemstva)
1.5.1.1 (1914 = 37 provinces, with Zemstva)
1.5.1.1.1 - NOT massively widespread; only introduced to a LIMITED number of provinces and SLOW to take form; as there were ONLY 70 PROVINCES in total!
1.6 Elected for 3 years.
1.7 Each Zemstva selected a GOVERNING BOARD from their members.
2 RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE 'ZEMSTVA'
2.1 Health
2.1.1 + HOSPITALS built carried lasting benefits!
2.2 Education.
2.3 Road and bridge maintenance
2.3.1 + ROADS built carried lasting benefits!
2.4 Local economic affairs.
2.5 Played an increasingly important role in LOCAL AREAS!
2.6 (1870) Extended to newly elected 'DUMAS' (TOWN COUNCILS).
3 POSITIVES
3.1 + Brought IMPROVEMENTS to many aspects of LOCAL AREAS!
3.1.1 Roads.
3.1.2 Health facilities.
3.1.3 Street lighting.
3.1.4 Drainage systems.
3.1.5 Water supplies.
3.1.6 Primary schools.
3.2 + Brought a VALUABLE addition to LOCAL government!
3.3 + Those in charge of the councils gained POLITICAL EXPERIENCE in managing affairs; many wishing to take this through to a NATIONAL LEVEL!
3.4 Members of the THIRD ELEMENT within the Zemstva developed enough confidence to issue demands for SOCIAL REFORM and BETTER LIVING CONDITIONS!
3.4.1 "Believed themselves to constitute a kind of 'alternative establishment,' more truly representative of the Russian nation and more genuinely able to serve it than the regime was."
3.4.1.1 Geoffrey Hosking
3.4.1.1.1 British Historian.
4 WEAKNESSES/LIMITATIONS
4.1 - RESTRICTIONS were placed on their powers of TAXATION; had trouble RAISING TAXES!
4.2 - DOMINATED by the NOBILITY; many did NOT take their responsibilities seriously, or took ADVANTAGE of the opportunity to operate affairs in their OWN INTERESTS!
4.3 The PEASANTS were discouraged by the NOBILITY, and unfortunately often did NOT really participate in local affairs.
4.4 - PEASANTS resented paying the Zemstvo TAX!
4.5 - MIXED results! Some more enterprising Zemstva, but equally also some lazier, indolent leadership.
4.6 Their POWER was STRICTLY LIMITED, and so decisions were NOT ABSOLUTE; the nobility and local Marshalls were able to veto their ideas.
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