Basic Atom Info

emmackinsey
Mind Map by emmackinsey, updated more than 1 year ago
emmackinsey
Created by emmackinsey over 4 years ago
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basic information about the structure of atoms

Resource summary

Basic Atom Info
1 made up of a nucleus surrounded by orbitals
1.1 nucleus
1.1.1 made up of protons and neutrons
1.1.1.1 protons have a positive charge
1.1.1.1.1 the # of protons determines the type of atom
1.1.1.2 neutrons have a neutral charge
1.1.1.3 held together by strong nuclear force
1.2 electron cloud
1.2.1 surrounds the nucleus
1.2.2 the most likely place to find an electron at a given time
1.2.3 divided into different levels, or orbitals
1.2.3.1 electrons located in the outermost orbitals are called valence electrons
1.2.3.1.1 atoms can lose or gain valence electrons
1.2.3.1.1.1 atoms that lose electrons become positively charged
1.2.3.1.1.1.1 known as cations
1.2.3.1.1.2 atoms that gain electrons become negatively charged
1.2.3.1.1.2.1 known as anions
1.2.3.2 different atoms have different distances between orbitals
1.2.3.2.1 when atoms absorb energy their electrons jump to higher orbitals
1.2.3.2.1.1 thus different atoms require varying amounts of energy for their electrons to switch orbitals
1.2.3.2.1.1.1 thus different atoms release different amounts of energy
1.2.3.2.1.1.1.1 thus different atoms release different colours of light
1.2.3.2.1.2 energy is released as the electron falls back to its original orbital (ground state)
1.2.3.2.1.2.1 the energy is usually released as light
1.2.3.2.1.2.1.1 thus different atoms release different colours of light
1.2.3.2.1.3 known as "excited state"
1.2.3.2.2
1.2.4 electrons have a negative charge
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