Sensation & Perception

Jessica Auger
Mind Map by Jessica Auger, updated more than 1 year ago
Jessica Auger
Created by Jessica Auger over 4 years ago
75
2

Description

Chapter 4 Psychology 104 Concept Map Sensation & Perception

Resource summary

Sensation & Perception
1 Psychophysics
1.1 Just Noticeable Difference (JND)
1.1.1 Weber's Law
1.1.1.1 Size of a JND is a constant proportion of the size of initial stimilus
1.1.1.1.1 1/3 for weight & pain
1.1.1.1.2 1/60 for vision
1.1.1.1.3 1/10 for hearing
1.1.1.2 Different fractions apply to different types
1.1.2 Fechner's Law
1.1.2.1 The amount of sensory experience is proportional to # of JND's
1.1.2.1.1 Stimilus is above absolute threshold
1.1.2.1.2 Same amount of increase in stimilus
1.1.2.1.2.1 Brings smaller increases in perceived increase
1.1.2.1.2.1.1 light
1.1.2.1.2.1.2 sound
1.2 Threshold
1.2.1 The diving point between energy levels
1.2.1.1 That do & do not have a detectable effect
1.2.2 Absolute Threshold
1.2.2.1 Input is the minimum amount of stimulation that an organism can detect
1.2.2.1.1 Stimulus Intensity
1.2.2.1.1.1 Increase
1.2.2.1.1.1.1 Subjects probability of responding increases
1.2.2.1.1.2 Detected 50% of the time
1.2.2.2 Define the boundaries
1.2.2.2.1 of an organism's sensory capabilities
1.3 The study of how physical stimuli are translated into psychological experience
1.4 Sensory Adaption
1.4.1 Gradual decline in sensitivity due to prolonged stimulation
1.4.2 Pervasive aspect of everyday life
1.4.3 Built-in Process
1.4.3.1 Sensory Input
1.4.3.1.1 Keeps people tuned in to changes
1.4.3.1.2 Rather than constants
1.4.4 Ignore the obvious
1.4.5 Focuses on changes
2 Vision
2.1 Eye
2.1.1 Lens
2.1.1.1 Behind the Iris
2.1.1.2 Transparent eye structure
2.1.1.2.1 Focuses light rays
2.1.1.2.1.1 That fall on the Retina
2.1.1.3 Made up of soft tissue
2.1.1.3.1 Capable of adjustments
2.1.1.3.1.1 Accomodation
2.1.1.3.1.1.1 Occurs when curvature of the lens adjusts to visual focus
2.1.1.3.1.1.1.1 Lens of eye gets fatter
2.1.1.3.1.1.1.1.1 To give Clearer Image
2.1.2 Pupil
2.1.2.1 opening in center of Iris
2.1.2.1.1 regulate amount of light passing into rear chamber of eye
2.1.2.2 Constricts
2.1.2.2.1 lets LESS light in
2.1.2.2.2 sharpens the image
2.1.2.3 Dilates
2.1.2.3.1 lets light in
2.1.2.3.2 Image is LESS sharp
2.1.2.4 Saccades
2.1.2.4.1 Constant Motion
2.1.2.4.1.1 eyes constantly scan environment
2.1.2.4.1.2 making brief fixations
2.1.2.4.2 Essential to good vision
2.1.3 Retina
2.1.3.1 Neural tissue lining the inside of the back surface of eye
2.1.3.2 absorbs light, processes images, sends info to brain
2.1.3.3 Optic Disk
2.1.3.3.1 Hole in the retina where optic nerve fibres exit the eye
2.1.3.4 Cones
2.1.3.4.1 Visual receptors
2.1.3.4.1.1 Key role in daylight vision
2.1.3.4.1.2 Key role in color vision
2.1.3.4.2 Do not respond well
2.1.3.4.2.1 to dim light
2.1.3.4.3 Provide better visual acuity
2.1.3.4.3.1 sharpness
2.1.3.4.3.2 precise detail
2.1.3.4.4 Fovea
2.1.3.4.4.1 Tiny spot in Center of Retina
2.1.3.4.4.2 Contains only cones
2.1.3.4.4.3 Visual acuity is BEST at this spot
2.1.3.5 Rods
2.1.3.5.1 Visual Receptors
2.1.3.5.1.1 Key Role
2.1.3.5.1.1.1 Night Vision
2.1.3.5.1.1.2 Peripheral Vision
2.1.3.6 Light Adaption
2.1.3.6.1 Light
2.1.3.6.1.1 Less Sensitive
2.1.3.6.1.1.1 To Light in High illumination
2.1.3.6.2 Dark
2.1.3.6.2.1 More Sensitive
2.1.3.6.2.1.1 To light in LOW illumination
2.2 Brain
2.2.1 Info. Processing
2.2.1.1 Receptive Field of a visual cell
2.2.1.1.1 Retinal Area
2.2.1.1.1.1 When stimulated affects the firing of cell
2.2.1.2 Optic Nerve
2.2.1.2.1 Collection of axons
2.2.1.2.1.1 Connect the eye with the brain
2.2.1.3 Center-Surround Arrangement
2.2.1.3.1 Center being excitatory
2.2.1.3.2 Surround inhibitory
2.2.1.3.2.1 or vice versa
2.2.1.3.3 Allows us to see edges clearly
2.2.2 Optic Nerve
2.2.2.1 Divided
2.2.2.2 Optic Chasm
2.2.2.2.1 Optic Nerve crosses here
2.2.2.2.1.1 half of each eye
2.2.2.2.1.1.1 left side of each eye goes to left brain
2.2.2.2.1.2 Goes to other side of brain
2.2.3 VISUAL CORTEX
2.2.3.1 Simple Cells
2.2.3.1.1 Respond to
2.2.3.1.1.1 Certain witdth
2.2.3.1.1.2 angle
2.2.3.1.1.3 position
2.2.3.1.1.4 in receptive field
2.2.3.2 Complex Cells
2.2.3.2.1 any position
2.2.3.2.2 Certain Width
2.2.3.2.3 Angle
2.2.3.2.4 SOME ONLY RESPOND TO A LINE MOVING IN A CERTAIN DIRECTION
2.2.3.3 CELLS IN THE CORTEX ARE HIGHLY SPECIALIZED
2.2.3.3.1 Known as FEATURE DECTECTORS
2.2.3.3.1.1 Neurons that respond only to specific features
2.2.3.3.1.1.1 of more complex stimuli
2.2.4 VISUAL AGNOSIA
2.2.4.1 inability to recognize objects
2.2.5 PROSOPAGNOSIA
2.2.5.1 inability to recognize familiar faces
2.3 Color Vision
2.3.1 Trichromatic Theory
2.3.1.1 Hermann von Helmholtz (1852)
2.3.1.1.1 Human eye has 3 types of receptors
2.3.1.1.1.1 Differing sensitivities to diff. Light Wavelengths
2.3.1.1.1.1.1 Red
2.3.1.1.1.1.2 Blue
2.3.1.1.1.1.3 Green
2.3.1.1.1.1.4 tv works this way
2.3.1.2 Color Blindness
2.3.1.2.1 Occurs more frequently in MALES
2.3.1.2.2 Dichromats
2.3.1.2.2.1 They only see with 2 channels
2.3.1.2.3 Lack red, green or blue channel
2.3.1.2.3.1 rare to not have blue working
2.3.1.2.4 SUPPORTS TRICHROMATIC THEORY
2.3.1.2.5 Hard to distinguish
2.3.1.2.5.1 green from red
2.3.1.2.5.2 yellow from blue
2.3.2 Opponent Process Theory
2.3.2.1 Complementary Colours
2.3.2.1.1 pairs of colours
2.3.2.1.1.1 produce gray tone when mixed
2.3.2.2 Afterimage
2.3.2.2.1 Image persists after stimulus is removed
2.3.2.2.2 Trichromatic Theory CAN'T account for afterimage effect
2.3.2.3 Ewald Hering (1878)
2.3.2.3.1 Color Perception depends on receptors
2.3.2.3.1.1 Opposite Responses to 3 pairs of colours
2.3.2.3.1.1.1 blue/yellow
2.3.2.3.1.1.2 red/green
2.3.2.3.1.1.3 black/white
2.3.2.3.1.2 also colors of afterimages
2.3.3 WE NEED BOTH THEORIES TO EXPLAIN COLOR VISION
2.3.4 RETINA HAS 3 TYPES OF CONES
2.3.4.1 red
2.3.4.2 blue
2.3.4.3 green
2.4 Processing
2.4.1 Top-Down
2.4.1.1 like reversible figures
2.4.1.2 when we perceive a word
2.4.1.2.1 before we know all the letters
2.4.2 Bottom-Up
2.4.2.1 Used in feature Analysis
2.4.2.2 starts at parts and builds towards the whole
3 Hearing
3.1 Properties of Sound
3.1.1 Wavelength/Frequency - PITCH
3.1.1.1 Measured in HERTZ (HZ)
3.1.1.2 Humans only hear 20-20,000 Hz
3.1.1.2.1 usually 2000-4000
3.1.2 Wave Amplitude
3.1.2.1 quality of loudness
3.1.2.2 Measured in Decibels (dB)
3.1.2.3 Painful after 120 dB
3.1.3 Wave purity/mixture
3.1.3.1 Timbre
3.1.3.1.1 Complexity of sound wave
3.1.3.2 Purest sound has only one frequency of vibration
3.1.4 Auditory Perception they INFLUENCE
3.1.4.1 Place Theory
3.1.4.1.1 Hermann von Helmholtz (1863)
3.1.4.1.1.1 proposed place theory of pitch
3.1.4.1.2 Spiral Cochlea
3.1.4.1.3 Basilar Membrane
3.1.4.1.3.1 Hair Cells
3.1.4.1.3.1.1 Auditory Receptors
3.1.4.2 Frequency Theory
3.1.4.2.1 Entire Basilar Membrane
3.1.4.2.1.1 Vibrates at different frequencies
3.1.4.2.1.2 Auditory nerve fibres
3.1.4.2.1.2.1 fire at different rates
3.1.4.2.1.2.1.1 Letting brain know pitch of sound
3.1.5 George von Bekesy (1947)
3.1.5.1 sound travels in waves
3.1.5.1.1 Peak in a certain place depending on frequency
3.1.5.1.1.1 Builds on PLACE THEORY
3.2 How it processes
3.2.1 Basilar Membrane
3.2.1.1 runs length of cochlea
3.2.1.1.1 Hair Cells
3.2.1.1.1.1 Stimulated by waves of fluid
4 The Other Senses
4.1 Taste
4.1.1 Gustatory Receptors
4.1.1.1 Taste Buds
4.1.1.1.1 line the trenches around tiny bumps
4.1.1.1.1.1 called papillae
4.1.2 FOUR MAIN TASTES
4.1.2.1 Sweet
4.1.2.1.1 Babies like sweet
4.1.2.2 Sour
4.1.2.3 Bitter
4.1.2.4 Salty
4.1.3 Most taste Preferences are learned
4.1.4 SUPER tasters
4.1.4.1 4 times as many taste buds
4.1.4.2 women
4.1.4.3 DISLIKE
4.1.4.3.1 Sweets
4.1.4.3.2 Veggies
4.1.4.3.3 alcohol
4.1.4.3.4 smoking
4.1.4.3.5 high fat foods
4.1.5 If a person lacks smell taste will be affected
4.2 Smell
4.2.1 Receptors
4.2.1.1 Olfactory Cilia
4.2.1.1.1 Hairlike structures
4.2.1.1.2 In upper portion of nasal passages
4.2.1.2 Axons that Synapse with cells
4.2.1.2.1 In olfactory bulb
4.2.1.2.1.1 base of brain
4.2.2 10,000 different odors
4.2.3 Pheremones
4.2.3.1 Chemical Messages
4.2.3.2 Linked to sexual attraction
4.2.3.3 send from one member of species to another
4.3 Touch
4.3.1 Sensing Pressure
4.3.1.1 Nerve Fibres
4.3.1.1.1 Carry messages from outside world
4.3.1.1.1.1 To spinal cord
4.3.1.1.1.2 To brain stem
4.3.1.1.1.3 go to opposite side of brain
4.3.1.2 Signals pass through THALAMUS
4.3.1.2.1 To Somatosensory cortex
4.3.1.2.1.1 Parietal Lobe
4.4 Pain
4.4.1 Pathways
4.4.1.1 Fast
4.4.1.1.1 Uses myelinated neurons
4.4.1.1.2 Registers pain in a second
4.4.1.2 Slow
4.4.1.2.1 Unmyelinated Neurons
4.4.1.2.2 Less localized, longer aches
4.4.1.2.3 Burning pain comes later
4.4.2 Gate Control Theory
4.4.2.1 Incoming Pain
4.4.2.1.1 passes through process
4.4.2.1.1.1 in spinal cord
4.4.2.2 can be closed by skin receptor signals
4.4.2.3 Can be closed by brain receptor signals
5 Sensation
5.1 The stimulation of sense organs
6 Perception
6.1 The selection, organization, & interpretation
6.1.1 of Sensory Input
Show full summary Hide full summary

Similar

History of Psychology
mia.rigby
Biological Psychology - Stress
Gurdev Manchanda
Psychology A1
Ellie Hughes
Memory Key words
Sammy :P
Psychology | Unit 4 | Addiction - Explanations
showmestarlight
Psychology subject map
Jake Pickup
Bowlby's Theory of Attachment
Jessica Phillips
The Biological Approach to Psychology
Gabby Wood
Cognitive Psychology - Capacity and encoding
Tess W
Chapter 5: Short-term and Working Memory
krupa8711
Psychology and the MCAT
Sarah Egan