GCSE PE - 8

lydia_ward
Mind Map by lydia_ward, updated more than 1 year ago
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GCSE GCSE PE Mind Map on GCSE PE - 8, created by lydia_ward on 11/24/2013.
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GCSE PE - 8
1 Function of the Skeleton
1.1 Protection
1.1.1 The Ribs protect the Heart and Lungs and the Cranium protects the Brain.
1.2 Shape
1.2.1 It gives framework.
1.2.1.1 Eg. Basketball player - long, thin skeleton.
1.2.1.2 Eg. Jockey - small, thin skeleton.
1.3 Support
1.3.1 Firm, rigid and keeps us upright.
1.4 Movement
1.4.1 Skeleton has 'anchor point' to which muscles attach and act as levers.
1.4.1.1 Long bones help creates the leverage to apply the force.
1.5 Blood Production
1.5.1 Red and white blood cells are produced in the long bones.
2 Bones
2.1 Long Bones
2.1.1 Humorous and Femur.
2.2 Shot Bones
2.2.1 Carpals and Tarsals.
2.3 Flat Bones
2.3.1 Cranium, Scapula and Sternum.
2.4 Irregular Bones
2.4.1 Patella and Vertebrae (odd shaped bones)
3 Sections of the Vertebrae
3.1 1. Cervical
3.1.1 7 vertebrae forms the neck and allows movement at the top of the spine.
3.2 2. Thoracic
3.2.1 12 vertebrae. 10 are attached to ribs and help movement whilst breathing.
3.3 3. Lumbar
3.3.1 5 large and robust vertebrae. This area allows most movement.
3.4 4. Sacrum
3.4.1 5 vertebrae which become fused together in adulthood.
3.4.1.1 They form part of the pelvic girdle.
3.5 5. Coccyx
3.5.1 4 vertebrae here, all fused together.
4 Development of Bones
4.1 Bones start off as cartilage and then become bone by the process of Ossification.
4.1.1 Ossification is the development of bone from cartilage. It occurs throughout childhood until adulthood.
4.2 Bones have a tough outer layer called the 'Periosteum'.
4.3 As development continues there are 3 centres of ossification:- in the 'Diaphysis' (middle) and 'Epiphyses' (end).
4.3.1 Diaphysis is the middle of the bone (shaft).
4.3.2 Epiphyses is at the end of the bone (end section).
4.3.2.1 Epihysis is on the top of the bone (growth plate).
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