Depression associated with cognitive content related
to themes of loss, deprivation, self depreciation, and
hopelessness (as for example opposed to anxiety-
themes of harm or threat)- although there is overlap
between both disorders.
Dispositional optimism-significant in
psychological well being. Impacts on mood states
during hardship (protective).
Optimism protective in lowering risk of depression in adolescents.
Optimism may play an important role in
preventing depressive episodes after child birth.
Optimism buffers against ill health.
Beck (1967) referred to the risk for depression lying
in the early experiences that develop a schema
related to the negative triad (self, world and future)
Attachment and temperament.
Attachment or relationship with care giver exposes the
individual to risk of developing negative cognitive schemas.
The insecure and disorganised attachment styles
in childhood place the individual at most risk.
Other interpersonal processes
Interactional nature of depression.
Comorbid substance abuse
Severe depression, especially if
psychotic or late onset
Acts of deliberate self-harm
Recent stress,loss or situational crisis, family
history of suicidal behaviour (esp. by hanging)
unemployment and/ or being“alone”
antisocial/aggressive behaviour,having a firearm
Behaviour which may be associated with increased risk
Dangerous and high risk behaviours
Discussing or writing about death and morbid themes
Giving away favourite possessions
Panic attacks and/or severe anxiety (psychological disorders)
Family history of suicide
Recent loss by death, divorce or separation
Single relationship status
Recent reduction in support
Severe hopelessness or helpness
Previous history of suicide attempts or threats to commit
Frequent suicidal ideation
Depression and Relationships
Interactional nature of depression
An attempt to explain the observations that
individuals who are depressed have problems in
their relationship interactions.
Early theories assumed that a depressed person had a
negative cognitive bias which prevented them
processing information related to positive aspects
(relationship interactions) in their environment.
Coyne (1976) argued from a different
perspective he suggested that the
depressed person aroused negative
reactions from others in their environment.
A negative cycle ensues where the depressed
person seeks a high degree of reassurance from
others and others offer non-genuine reassurance
and support but then avoid the depressed person
(this supports the depressed person’s views of
others being unavailable and unsupportive and
confirms their own negative views)
Individuals with negative reassurance seeking
generate stress in interpersonal relationships and
respond with a sense of urgency when they are
trying to alleviate their own negative fears.
Self-verification theory describes a negative cycle
within the depressed person’s relationships where
they are unable to challenge their own negative view
(and interact with others that support this view).
A time limited treatment program for
individuals with unipolar depression.
Key concept is that life events occurring after early
childhood years influence subsequent psychopathology.
IPT therapists assume etiology of depression
multifaceted but use current or recent life events as
the framework for treating the depressive episode
(rather than past childhood events).
1. Careful history of links between depressive
symptoms and interpersonal problem areas.
Complicated bereavement, Role
disputes, Role transitions, Interpersonal
deficits (difficulties with social
relationships, forming relationships etc.)
2. Identify interventions focusing on problem areas identified.
3. Maintenance and preparing for independence
from treatment (e.g., planning ahead).