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Chapter 7: Long-Term Memory: Encoding, Retrieval, and Consolidation


Encoding: getting information into long-term memory, Consolidation: the life history of memories
Mind Map by krupa8711, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by krupa8711 over 6 years ago

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Chapter 7: Long-Term Memory: Encoding, Retrieval, and Consolidation
  1. Retrieval
    1. Process of transferring from LTM to working memory
      1. Self-generating cues are better for the memory
        1. Encoding Specificity
          1. States that we encode information along with its context
            1. Easier to retrieve it the way you stuck it in (mood, location,..)
          2. Circular Reasoning
            1. Can measure memory performance in each condition
              1. Begins and ends with the same thing
              2. Storing Information
                1. Encoding
                  1. The process of acquiring information and transferring it into LTM
                    1. Visual Memory
                      1. Picture it in your mind
                        1. Example: A dog, a phone number
                        2. Self-reference
                          1. Memory is better if you relate a word to yourself
                            1. Example: Numbers to birthday
                            2. Generation effect
                              1. Making ways to remember something
                                1. Your own definition
                                2. Testing yourself
                                  1. Actually testing yourself
                                    1. A study guide
                                    2. Organization effect
                                      1. Put similar words in a group that makes sense to you
                                        1. Putting a large list into a smaller one
                                      2. Maintenance Rehearsal
                                        1. Without making any consideration of meaning or making connections with other information
                                        2. Elaborative Rehearsal
                                          1. Making connections to other information and considering meaning
                                            1. The better way of the two rehearsals
                                          2. Levels of Processing
                                            1. Depth
                                              1. Distinguishes between shallow and deep processing
                                                1. Shallow
                                                  1. Little attention to meaning
                                                  2. Deep
                                                    1. Involves close attention
                                                      1. Better for memory
                                                  3. Consolidation
                                                    1. The process that transforms new memories from a fragile state, in which they can be disrupted, to a more permanent state, in which they are resistant to disruption
                                                      1. Synaptic
                                                        1. Takes place over minutes or hours and involves structural changes at synapses
                                                        2. Systems
                                                          1. Takes place over months or years and involves gradual reorganization of neural circuits within the brain
                                                          2. Sleep and consolidation
                                                            1. Better for you to learn before bed then sleep
                                                              1. Less interference during consolidation
                                                                1. Sleep and REM enhanced consolidation
                                                              2. Reconsolidation
                                                                1. When a memory is retrieved, it becomes fragile, and when it is in the fragile state it can be consolidated again
                                                                  1. Helps PTSD suffers
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