Mind Map by zoe_whitwell, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by zoe_whitwell over 5 years ago



Resource summary

1 Models of Depression
1.1 Cognitive Behavioural Model
1.1.1 Biological Genetics Indirect biological mechanisms Neurotransmitter models Changes in NT related to stress Changes in the structure of the brain associated with depression Changes in hormones and inflammatory responses Sleep Some evidence suggests sleep problems precede depression
1.1.2 Cognitive Depressive schemas Maladaptive beliefs Information processing (attention/memory) negatively biased Rumination Negative automatic thoughts Pessimism
1.1.3 Social Early experiences developing schema (negative triad - self, world, future Attachment and temperament Social support (family experiences, intimate relationships)
2 Assessment and Diagnosis
2.1 Cognitive Behavioural Theory
2.1.1 Conducted on immediate experience
2.1.2 Identify affective responses, cognitions during events, and behavioural responses
2.1.3 Further assessment may be conducted on past events Context for developing schemas Patterns of thinking established early in life Behavioural responses based on past experiences
2.2 Clinical Tools
2.2.1 DSM5
2.2.2 Interviews and questionnaires
2.2.3 ICD-10
2.3 Case history and context
3.1 Bipolar I disorder: manic preceded or followed by MDE
3.2 Bipolar II disorder: hypomania preceded or followed by MDE
3.3 Substance induced Bipolar and related disorders
3.4 Bipolar and related disorders due to medical condition
4 Depressive Disorders
4.1 Disruptive dysregulation mood disorder
4.1.1 Severe recurrent temper outburts manifested verbally and/or behaviourally that are grossly out of proportion in intensity or durations to the situation ("rages")
4.2 Major Depressive Disorder
4.2.1 Five or more of the following symptoms present for two weeks and present a major change in functioning Depressed mood Diminished interest in pleasure Significant weight loss/change Sleep distrubance Psychomotor agiitation (noticed by oithers Feelings of worthlessness or guilt Dimiinished ability to think Recurrent thoughts of death/suicidal ideation Suicidal ideation is a fearture of a number of disorders Suicidal behaviours can result from symptoms other than depressed mood Psychotic symptoms (delsuions and hallucaintions)
4.3 Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia)
4.3.1 Depressed mood for most of the day, more days than not, for at least 2 years
4.3.2 Double depression
4.4 Post Natal Depression
4.4.1 Affects 14% of women who give birth
4.4.2 Neuroticism and introversion associated with 4-6x risk
4.4.3 Severe repercussions for mother and baby if left untreated (long term implications)
5 Special populations
5.1 Adolescents
5.1.1 Critical period for vulnerability to depression 15-18 years Risk of depressed symptoms rises 14-15 years
5.1.2 Low mood or dysthymic disorder prior to age 21 lasts longer/ more treatment resistant
5.1.3 Symptoms similar to adult presentation
5.1.4 Risks at this time: bullying, peer group isolation, problems at home, illness
5.2 Men
5.2.1 Lower rates than women but less likely to seek help
5.2.2 Higher risk for suicide
5.2.3 Australian men in rural settings have higher rates of suicide compared to metro men
5.3 Elderly
5.3.1 6-15% suffer from MDD and more from milder forms
5.3.2 Aypical presentations inc. somatic symptoms
6 Depression and Relationships
6.1 Interactional Nature of Depression (Coyne)
6.1.1 Negative reassurance seeking behaviours place strain on interpersonal relationships
6.2 Self-verification Theory
6.2.1 Individuals with negative views solicit negative information about themselves Confirming feedback more comforting this nonconfirming feedback
7 Treatment
7.1 IPT
7.1.1 Three stages History of links b/w depressive symptoms and interpersonal problem areas Identify interventions focusing on problem areas Maintenance and preparing for independence from treatment
7.1.2 Efficacy In 16 weeks IPT as effective as antidepressants More effective than CBT in severely depressed individuals Social skills improvement 8-10 months later Benefits remain 8-10 months after treatment ends
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