Identity

Ambe brant
Mind Map by Ambe brant , updated more than 1 year ago
Ambe brant
Created by Ambe brant about 6 years ago
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identity mind map

Resource summary

Identity
  1. Gender
    1. Gender is socially constructed(masculine&feminine)
      1. Sex is biological(female&male)
        1. Ann Oakley-researched how family reinforces gender role socialisation
          1. Manipulation-how 'normal' behaviour is encouraged
            1. Cannalisation-channeling children's interests in particular directions.(for example what toys you give the child)
              1. Verbal appeliation-using words to define whats appropriate for socialisation for gender.(for example-'my little princess' and 'naughty boy')
                1. Different activities-how parents involve children in household chores.(for example girls help cook)
                2. These norms and values have been labelled 'gender roles', and the definition of gender roles have changed over time.
                  1. Vews on gender
                    1. Radical Feminism-gender equality does not exist; society is patriarchal(male-dominant)
                      1. Secondary socialisation can be harmful to women;cause body image issues
                      2. Marxism-popular and mass culture distract society from gender equality.
                        1. Conflict theory;gender inequality is necessary
                          1. Society benefits those with power;in a patriarchal society,that would be males getting benefits
                        2. Functionalism-Society benefits everyone in different ways, no matter their gender.
                          1. Gender roles are vital in society; they ensure that society runs smoothly and at its best.
                          2. Postmodernism-Norms and values in gender are always chaning;equality is improving.
                            1. Gender diversity9the rise of transgender and non-binary identities) is becoming visible; altering modern days gender roles
                          3. Looking glass self-women are persuaded by agencies of socialisation that they must appeal in a certain way
                            1. They judge by how others perceive them; they change aspects of themselves in order to 'fit in' and be liked.
                            2. Labelling theory-Gender roles are to be followed
                              1. Rejecting such roles (deviance) can allow negative labelling for both males and females
                                1. Labels could link to such aspects of one, such as their abilities or sexuality (for example a man negatively being labelled 'gay' if he enjoys feminine activities.
                            3. Age
                              1. The period of time someone has been alive or something has existed for
                                1. Age controls our status and power and can affect peoples identities in negative and positive way throughout their life.
                                2. Stages in the life course
                                  1. Childhood
                                    1. Youth
                                      1. Young adulthood and middle age
                                        1. Old age
                                          1. These stages in your life course changes depending on where you are in the world, this reveals that age is socially constructed.
                                          2. Hockey and James(1993)
                                            1. Hockey and James say that children are seen to lack the status and personhood and are separated and excluded from the public,adult world,schools,nurseries and the family.
                                              1. Hockey and James link old age and childhood, using the concept 'infantillisation' to explain the similarities between the two.(for example vulnerability and helplessness)
                                              2. Views on age
                                                1. Feminism-Women are judged my factors such as age.
                                                  1. Society favours young and young-looking women over ages women
                                                  2. Marxism-Ageist conflict is necessary along with togetherness.
                                                    1. Adults have the most power, children are negatively treated in society; adults are benefitted most.
                                                    2. Functionalism-Age has no matter on social benefits
                                                      1. Children and adults shall remain with different treatment to benefit society.
                                                      2. Postmodernism-More children are being taken seriously
                                                        1. Younger people are taking over.
                                                          1. Technology is advancing by young people
                                                      3. Ethnicity
                                                        1. ethnicity relates to culture, so we all have a ethnic identity- made up of our religion,language,where we live,our ethnic origin, skin colour and so on.
                                                          1. In the UK we identify certain ethnic groups by their shared cultural characteritics,though this is often problematic as third,fouth generation migrants are often very complex because they have a range of characterisitcs.
                                                            1. An example of this is Modood(1997) he studied 'Asians' and how they fall into the same category but he found they have different nationalities,different religious groups and several language groups
                                                          2. Hynridity?
                                                            1. A Hybrid identity is a identity formed with aspects made from a mixture.
                                                              1. This is obvious mainly in ones nationality and ethnicity; someone can identify as being a British ethnicity, but also carries traits of Asian ethnicity such as having Indian or Pakistan routes.
                                                              2. Views on hybrid identities
                                                                1. Feminism-Hybrid identities spread equality
                                                                  1. This can include hybrid gender identities,where people can posses masculine and feminine features.
                                                                  2. Marxism-Society benefits those with the most power; having hybrid identies, where one part of the hybrid aspect is the 'strongest', allows them to gather privilege.
                                                                    1. There would be conflict; people may disagree with the idea of hybrid identities.
                                                                    2. Functionalism-Roles should be kept to allow society to continue smoothly; this would argue against hybrid identities because it combines roles, creating a new concept.
                                                                      1. Society would benefit all, no matter how people identify themselves.
                                                                      2. Postmodernism-Hybrid identities are becoming more common in society.
                                                                        1. It abandons old roles set in the era of modernity.
                                                                      3. Study on hybrid identities-Nayak(2003)
                                                                        1. Coined the term of 'white wannabes'
                                                                          1. This term is used primarily to describe white british males who embrace black hip hop cculture.
                                                                            1. This is mainly through their apperance,characteristics and gestures.
                                                                              1. An example of this would be Ali G, a character created by a comedian Sacha Baron Cohen, who is portrayed as a young white male who speaks jamaican-like accent and dons tracksuits.
                                                                            2. Views on ethnicity
                                                                              1. Feminism-Supporting equality of all females; ethnicity should not divide them.
                                                                                1. Marxism-The 'ideal' ethnicity, which in most western countries is white people, would be given the post power and be given more benefits by society.
                                                                                  1. Conflict between people due to ethnicity is needed, when there is equality.
                                                                                  2. Functionalism-Society benefits all of any ethnicity
                                                                                    1. Certain ethnicities should remain on uneven grounds, as established decades ago, to keep society running smoothly.
                                                                                    2. Postmodernism-Equality is slowly improving
                                                                                      1. There is international movements for ethnicity equality in western countries.
                                                                                  3. Nationality
                                                                                    1. The status of belonging to a particular nation.
                                                                                      1. National identity is considered in a wider conext- as the identity of the whole country. However a indivual has a national identity which is usually expressed through supporting your nation in sports and also through pride in the anthem adn flag and laguage.
                                                                                        1. An example of national identity is the 2014 campaign and vote for scottish independence from the uk. This raised many issues ofnational identity.
                                                                                          1. For scottish people it was a question of identity and the whole campaign demonstrated the differences in idenitiy.
                                                                                            1. They found in opinion polls around 25% identity as 'more scottish than british'
                                                                                            2. views on nationality
                                                                                              1. Feminism-Nationality can determine how women are treated their cultures.
                                                                                                1. Some national traditions are in favour of males,specifically in patriarchal socities
                                                                                                2. Marxism-Society benefits those with higher wealth and power; populations of less economically developed countries would not gain many benefits.
                                                                                                  1. Conflict between nationalities keeps social balance.
                                                                                                  2. Functionalism-Society benefits all in different ways internationally.
                                                                                                    1. How nationalies are seen and treated should remain; roles are vital to help society.
                                                                                                    2. Postmodernism-Nationality is not as important a matter as previously.
                                                                                                      1. People of various nationalities live in different countires; this is allowed when legally able to stay.
                                                                                                  3. Socail class
                                                                                                    1. A division of a society based on social and economic status.
                                                                                                      1. Judging social class
                                                                                                        1. possesions
                                                                                                          1. house
                                                                                                            1. lesuire/lifestyle
                                                                                                              1. holidays
                                                                                                                1. dress/style
                                                                                                                  1. accent/speech
                                                                                                                    1. norms/values
                                                                                                                      1. money/income
                                                                                                                        1. occupatuoin
                                                                                                                        2. Class is a social system, used more often decades ago,that separated people due to the different class levels
                                                                                                                          1. Views on class
                                                                                                                            1. Feminism-Gender inequality;women earn less and gain less power than men.
                                                                                                                              1. Working class women preform unpaid labour such as running a household.
                                                                                                                              2. Marxism-Conflict between social classes caused by power.
                                                                                                                                1. Society benefits rich and powerful;this world mean the upper class is benefitted most.
                                                                                                                                  1. Popular culture distracts the lower classes from the class equality.
                                                                                                                                  2. Functionalism-Society benefits everyone of all social classes
                                                                                                                                    1. The class system and roles in classes are needed to keep society running smoothly
                                                                                                                                    2. Postmoderinism-Modern life does not focus greatly on class status.
                                                                                                                                      1. As diversity increases in how to gain wealth and income, the class system is dismissed.
                                                                                                                                  3. A social identity means how your identity is shown in society,and seen by others.
                                                                                                                                    1. culture is a way of life and a collection of N+V status and role
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