ENZYMES

Marcus Wells
Mind Map by Marcus Wells, updated more than 1 year ago
Marcus Wells
Created by Marcus Wells about 6 years ago
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Description

A mind map showing what enzymes are

Resource summary

ENZYMES
  1. What are they?
    1. Catalysts produced by living things
      1. A catalyst is a substance which increases the rate of reaction, without being used up
      2. Act as a biological catalyst
        1. Made of proteins
          1. Made of amino acids
        2. Active site
          1. Each enzyme has a unique shape
            1. Fits onto the substance involved in a reaction
              1. Only usually catalyse one reaction
                1. Substance must fit active site
                  1. If not, the reaction won't be catalysed
              2. Diagram of an enzyme
            2. Temperature
              1. Too hot
                1. Bonds holding the enzyme together will break.
                  1. Denatured
                    1. Too high or low
                      1. Interferes with bonds holding the enzyme together
                  2. Too Cold
                    1. Dormant
                    2. Work best at 37 degrees c
                    3. pH
                      1. Too high or low
                        1. Pepsin best at pH 2
                          1. Acidic
                        2. Digestion
                          1. Types
                            1. Amylase
                              1. Starch into sugars
                                1. Made in
                                  1. Salivary glands
                                    1. Pancreas
                                      1. Small intestine
                                    2. Protease
                                      1. Proteins into amino acids
                                        1. Made in
                                          1. Stomach
                                            1. Pancreas
                                              1. Small intestine
                                            2. Lipase
                                              1. Lipids into glycerol
                                                1. Made in
                                                  1. Pancreas
                                                    1. Small intestine
                                                2. Break down molecules into smaller ones.
                                                  1. Big molecules
                                                    1. Can't pass through walls of digestive system
                                                      1. Starch, proteins and fats
                                                      2. Small molecules
                                                        1. Sugar, glycerol, amino acids and fatty acids
                                                          1. Can fit through walls of digestive system
                                                        2. Bile
                                                          1. Produced in the liver
                                                            1. Stored in the gall bladder
                                                              1. Released into the small intetine
                                                            2. Neutralises stomach acids
                                                              1. Alkaline
                                                                1. Enzymes work best at alkaline
                                                                  1. Alkaline
                                                              2. Emulsifies fats
                                                                1. Bigger surface area for enzyme lipase to work on
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