Chapter 6 mind map

Mandee Urlacher
Mind Map by Mandee Urlacher, updated more than 1 year ago


november 14th

Resource summary

Chapter 6 mind map
1 Learning: durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience.
1.1 Conditioning: learning connections between events that occur in an organisms environment.
2 Classical Conditioning: Developed by I can Pavlov, refers to specific type of learning in which stimulus gets capacity to evoke response that was originally evoked by physically natural stimulus.
2.1 AKA: Pavlovian conditioning, turned to scientific approach.
2.2 Phobias: irrational fears of specific objects or situations.
2.2.1 Eq: Someone gets dizzy while in a high place because they are scared of heights. (Behaviour)
2.3 Can produce fears and disorders but can be used in positive ways.
3 Acquisition: acquiring or learning the new behaviour. (Novel, unusual or very intense) Timing is a factor. Stimulus contiguity: how close stimuli are together. Initial Stage.
3.1 Extinction: presenting CS repeatedly, after conditioning, without US, resulting in no response. Gradual awakening and disappearance of conditioned tendency.
3.1.1 Spontaneous Recovery: recovery of extinguished CR after period of non exposure to CS. (is not as strong) Renewal Effect: Response extinguished in different environment, will reappear once the person is returned to original environment.
4 Generalization: Responding to new stimulus similar to response produced by established CS.
4.1 -Things that look, sound of feel the same. eq: if you don't like the dentist, the neighbours high powered drill may sound the same.
4.2 Stimulus Discrimination: responding differently to new stimulus than one responds to CS. When stimuli shari similar properties.
5 Operant Conditioning: behaviour is controlled by consequences, by indicating probable consequences of a response. Of own voluntary actions.
6 Positive Reinforcement: occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding stimulus. (Good grades)
6.1 Negative Reinforcement: occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus. (unpleasant)
6.1.1 Punishment: consequences that decrease the likelihood of responding in a similar way again. Event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response.
6.2 Primary: events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs. (food, water, warmth, sex)
6.2.1 Secondary: associated with primary, and so acquire reinforcing qualities. (money, attention, good grades)
7 Instinctive Drift: occurs when an animal's innate response tendencies interfere with conditioning processes. First described by the Brelands, training animals for commercial purposes.
7.1 To control behaviour through conditioning.
7.1.1 Species specific biological constraints on learning. Basic mechanisms of learning are similar across species, but that these have been modified in the course of evolution. (adapted by environment)
8 Tolman and colleagues conducted series of studies that posed difficult questions for prevailing views of conditioning.
8.1 Rats: discovered that there is no motivation to learn without a reward.
8.1.1 Latent Learning: learning that is not apparent from behaviour when it first occurs.
9 Observational Learning: relevant to children, techniques to reduce fears, and promote positive behaviours. In some cases also negative, for example television models negative behaviour such as aggresion. Organisms responding is influenced by the observation of others.
9.1 Linked to physical and verbal aggression. Exposure to media violence in childhood predicts aggressiveness in adolescence and adulthood.
9.2 Mirror Neurons: neutrons that are activated by performing an action or seeing someone else doing an action. Same neutrons are activated while doing as they are by watching. (Monkey see, Monkey do)
10 Bandura: Researcher who studied effects of viewing adult aggressive behaviour on children. Involved film of adult hitting doll, then children acted out what the observed.
10.1 Adult was either praised or punished.
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