1 Learning: durable change in behaviour or
knowledge that is due to experience.
1.1 Conditioning: learning connections
between events that occur in an
2 Classical Conditioning: Developed by I can Pavlov,
refers to specific type of learning in which stimulus
gets capacity to evoke response that was originally
evoked by physically natural stimulus.
2.1 AKA: Pavlovian conditioning, turned to scientific approach.
2.2 Phobias: irrational fears of specific objects
2.2.1 Eq: Someone gets dizzy while in
a high place because they are
scared of heights. (Behaviour)
2.3 Can produce fears and
disorders but can be used
in positive ways.
3 Acquisition: acquiring or learning the new behaviour.
(Novel, unusual or very intense) Timing is a factor.
Stimulus contiguity: how close stimuli are together.
3.1 Extinction: presenting CS
repeatedly, after conditioning,
without US, resulting in no
response. Gradual awakening and
disappearance of conditioned tendency.
3.1.1 Spontaneous Recovery: recovery of
extinguished CR after period of non
exposure to CS. (is not as strong)
188.8.131.52 Renewal Effect: Response
extinguished in different
environment, will reappear
once the person is returned to
4 Generalization: Responding to
new stimulus similar to response
produced by established CS.
4.1 -Things that look, sound of feel the same. eq: if
you don't like the dentist, the neighbours high
powered drill may sound the same.
4.2 Stimulus Discrimination: responding differently to
new stimulus than one responds to CS. When
stimuli shari similar properties.
5 Operant Conditioning: behaviour is controlled by
consequences, by indicating probable consequences of a
response. Of own voluntary actions.
6 Positive Reinforcement: occurs when a response is
strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a
rewarding stimulus. (Good grades)
6.1 Negative Reinforcement: occurs when a response is
strengthened because it is followed by the removal
of an aversive stimulus. (unpleasant)
6.1.1 Punishment: consequences that
decrease the likelihood of
responding in a similar way again.
Event following a response
weakens the tendency to make
6.2 Primary: events that are
inherently reinforcing because
they satisfy biological needs.
(food, water, warmth, sex)
6.2.1 Secondary: associated
with primary, and so
attention, good grades)
7 Instinctive Drift: occurs when an animal's innate response tendencies interfere with conditioning
processes. First described by the Brelands, training animals for commercial purposes.
7.1 To control behaviour through conditioning.
7.1.1 Species specific biological constraints on learning. Basic
mechanisms of learning are similar across species, but that
these have been modified in the course of evolution. (adapted
8 Tolman and colleagues conducted
series of studies that posed difficult
questions for prevailing views of
8.1 Rats: discovered that there is no
motivation to learn without a reward.
8.1.1 Latent Learning: learning that is not
apparent from behaviour when it first
9 Observational Learning: relevant to children, techniques to reduce fears, and promote
positive behaviours. In some cases also negative, for example television models negative
behaviour such as aggresion. Organisms responding is influenced by the observation of others.
9.1 Linked to physical and verbal
aggression. Exposure to media
violence in childhood predicts
aggressiveness in adolescence and
9.2 Mirror Neurons: neutrons that are
activated by performing an action or
seeing someone else doing an action.
Same neutrons are activated while
doing as they are by watching.
(Monkey see, Monkey do)
10 Bandura: Researcher who studied effects of
viewing adult aggressive behaviour on
children. Involved film of adult hitting doll,
then children acted out what the observed.