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Chapter 5: Variations in Consciousness

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My mindmap for chapter 5.
Andrew Cooper
Mind Map by Andrew Cooper, updated more than 1 year ago
Andrew Cooper
Created by Andrew Cooper over 6 years ago
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Resource summary

Chapter 5: Variations in Consciousness
  1. Sleep
    1. Stages of Sleep

      Annotations:

      • Stages 1-4 are NREM stage 5 is REM
      1. Stage 1

        Annotations:

        • Stage 1 is a brief transitional phase, Usually lasts 1-7 minutes.  Alpha and Theta waves observed by EEG
        1. Stage 2

          Annotations:

          • Stage 2 lasts 10-25 minutes and is dominated by bursts of high frequency brain waves known as Sleep spindles. 
          1. Stage 3+4

            Annotations:

            • Stages 3+4 are called slow-wave sleep during which high amplitude and low frequency delta waves dominate EEG recordings
            1. Stage 5 REM

              Annotations:

              • Once the sleeper surpasses stage 4 and should return to stage 1 they transition into a stage 5: REM sleep.  It is characterized by deep sleep and Rapid Eye Movement.  
              1. Vivid Dreams

                Annotations:

                • Vivid dreams and nightmares 
              2. Night Terrors

                Annotations:

                • Abrupt awakenings from NREM accompanied by intense autonomic arousal and feelings of panic. 
                1. Sleepwalking/talking

                  Annotations:

                  • Found in stage 3, see Somnambulism in Sleep disorders for more info. 
                2. Sleep Spindles

                  Annotations:

                  • A sleep spindle is a burst of oscillatory brain activity visible on an EEG that occurs during stage 2 sleep.
                3. Hypnotic Jerks

                  Annotations:

                  • Feeling of actually falling
                4. Measured by EEG

                  Annotations:

                  • An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a test that detects electrical activity in your brain using small, flat metal discs (electrodes) attached to your scalp.
                5. Dreams
                  1. Freud

                    Annotations:

                    • Believe dreams are a form of wish fulfillment 
                    1. Cartwright

                      Annotations:

                      • Mental Housekeeping Theory: Believes dreams are a creative way of problem solving for the real world. 
                      1. Hobson + Mccarley

                        Annotations:

                        • Activation-Synthesis Model, proposes dreams are a side effect of the neural activation that produces waking-like brain waves during REM sleep. 
                      2. Sleep Disorders
                        1. Narcolepsy

                          Annotations:

                          • Falling asleep uncontrollably. 
                          1. Insomnia

                            Annotations:

                            • Difficulty falling and staying asleep. Caused by an array of symptoms: anxiety, tension, emotional problems, depression, stress, pressure, pain, ulcers, asthma, drugs (specifically stimulants).  Most common treatment are sedatives which come in two classes: benzodiazepene and nonbenzodiazepene. 
                            1. Apnea

                              Annotations:

                              • Snoring. 
                              1. Somnambulism

                                Annotations:

                                • Sleepwalking.
                                1. RBD

                                  Annotations:

                                  • REM sleep behavior disorder marked by troublesome dream enactments during REM periods.
                                2. Deprivation
                                  1. Sleep Restriction

                                    Annotations:

                                    • Occurs when people make do with substantially less sleep than normal over a period of time. 
                                    1. Selective Deprevation

                                      Annotations:

                                      • Deprived of REM sleep, can only last for 2-4 days completely deprived 
                                  2. Drugs
                                    1. Narcotics

                                      Annotations:

                                      • Drugs derived from opiates capable of relieving pain.    High physical dependence High Psychological dependence 
                                      1. Sedatives

                                        Annotations:

                                        • Sleep inducing drugs that tend to decrease Central Nervous System activation and behavioral activity. High Physical dependance High psychological dependence
                                        1. Stimulants

                                          Annotations:

                                          • Drugs that tend to increase Central Nervous System activation and behavioral activity.  Moderate Physical dependence High psychological dependence 
                                          1. Hallucinogens

                                            Annotations:

                                            • A diverse group of drugs that have powerful effects on mental and emotional functioning, marked most prominently by distortions in sensory and perceptual experience.  No physical dependence  low psychological dependence 
                                            1. Cannabis

                                              Annotations:

                                              • A hemp plant from which marijuana, hashish, and THC are derived. No physical dependence  low to moderate psychological dependence.  
                                              1. Alcohol

                                                Annotations:

                                                • a variety beverage containing ethyl alcohol.  Moderate Physical dependence  moderate psychological dependence
                                                1. MDMA

                                                  Annotations:

                                                  • A compound drug related to both amphetamines and hallucinogens, especially mescaline.  Similair physical and psychological dependences to hallucinogens. 
                                                  1. Tolerance Vs Dependence

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • Tolerance is the ability or willingness to tolerate something, in particular the existence of opinions or behavior that one does not necessarily agree with. Dependence is the addiction to a drug. 
                                                    1. Physical

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • When a person must continue to take a drug to avoid withdrawal.
                                                      1. Psychological

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • When a person must continue to take a drug to satisfy intense mental and emotional cravings. 
                                                    2. Hypnosis

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • Systematic procedure that increases suggestibility. 
                                                      1. Susceptibility.

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • Hypnotic susceptibility measures how easily a person can be hypnotized. varies between individuals. Linked to higher levels of absorbtion in tasks. 
                                                        1. Stanford Hypnotic susceptibility scale

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • A scale developed to measure the susceptibility of an individual to hypnotism.  
                                                        2. Effects
                                                          1. Anesthesia

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • Anesthesia is a way to control pain during a surgery or procedure by using medicine called anesthetics. It can help control your breathing, blood pressure, blood flow, and heart rate and rhythm.
                                                            1. Dis-inhibition

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • Dis-inhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment.
                                                              1. Hallucinations

                                                                Annotations:

                                                                • An experience involving the apparent perception of something not present.
                                                                1. Post-hypnotic suggestion

                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                  • A suggestion made to a hypnotized person that specifies an action to be performed after awakening, often in response to a cue.
                                                                  1. Post-Hypnotic Amnesia

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    • Post-hypnotic amnesia is the inability in hypnotic subjects to recall events that took place while under hypnosis.
                                                                  2. Theories
                                                                    1. Social Cognitive Theory

                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                      • Social cognitive theory (SCT) holds that portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences. 
                                                                      1. Hypnotic Trance vs Role Playing

                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                        • One theory is that hypnosis puts subjects into a deep trance, however due to EEG activity there is no evidence of these claims which has led many to believe that hypnosis is just elaborate role playing.
                                                                        1. Dissociation

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          • A splitting of the mental processes into two streams of consciousness. 
                                                                      2. Meditation

                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                        • Practices that train attention to heighten awareness and bring mental processes under greater voluntary control.  
                                                                        1. Benefits
                                                                          1. Decreased heart respiration rate
                                                                            1. lower blood pressure
                                                                              1. Managing stress
                                                                                1. Cardio-vascular benefits
                                                                                  1. Grey Matter Increase
                                                                                    1. Mindfulness Mediation
                                                                                      1. Immune system boost
                                                                                      2. Origins

                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                        • An ancient discipline originally rooted in yoga, zen, and transcendental meditation.  
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