Memory

Kirsten Sjostrom
Mind Map by Kirsten Sjostrom, updated more than 1 year ago
Kirsten Sjostrom
Created by Kirsten Sjostrom about 6 years ago
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memory map

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Memory
  1. encoding-the information gets into our brains in a way that allows it to be stored
    1. storing-the information is held in a way that allows it to later be retrieved
      1. retrieval- reactivating and recalling the information, producing it in a form similar to what was encoded
        1. retrival cues- are stimuli that assist in memory retrieval.
          1. contex cues-hints or bits of information that help us figure out the meaning of difficult or unfamiliar words we read
        2. level 1- Structural = shallow
          1. level 2- Phonemic = intermediate
            1. level 3- Semantic = deep
          2. forgetting curve- Material encoded into long term memory will decay if the memory is never used, recalled, and re-stored.
            1. The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
              1. Recalling an event
                1. Reconstructing memories
          3. short term memory- Limited capacity, limited duration
            1. maintenance rehersal- the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information
              1. elaborate rehersal- a type of encoding that links new information to information already in the long-term store
              2. long term memory- unlimited capacity, mostly permanent storage
                1. recognition- that provides the ability for an individual to identify a previously encountered stimulus.
                  1. recall-to the subsequent re-accessing of events or information from the past, which have been previously encoded and stored in the brain.
                  2. flashbulb memories- These memories may feel vivid as if we were re-experiencing the event, but they are not necessarily accurate; in fact, they get altered every time we recall them.
                    1. 7 sins of memory
                      1. Transience- weakening of a memory over time.
                        1. Bias-inaccuracy due to the effect of our current knowledge on our reconstruction of the past.
                          1. Suggestibility- our memory is distorted because of, for example, misleading questions.
                            1. Absentmindedness- a memory failure that is often due to a failure to pay attention because we are perhaps preoccupied with other things
                              1. Blocking-often temporary problem that occurs when we fail to retrieve an item of information such as someone’s name when we meet them
                                1. Persistence- involves unwanted memories or recollections that you cannot forget, memories that haunt you
                                  1. Misattribution-we assign a memory to the wrong source
                                  2. implicit vs explicit- implicit is facts, stories, and meanings of words. Explicit are skills, procedures, and conditioned associations
                                    1. eposodic vs semantic- Semantic networks consist of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts.
                                      1. 3 mnemonic devices
                                        1. testing effect- if your distributed practice includes testing, you will learn more and retain more than if you merely reread.
                                          1. spacing effect- You will develop better retention and recall, especially in the long run, if you use the same amount of study time spread out over many shorter sessions.
                                            1. self reference effect- relating material to ourselves, aids encoding and retention.
                                            2. sensory store-stimuli are recorded by our senses and held briefly
                                              1. Schema- A script is a particular type of schema, organizing what a person knows about common activities: for example, going to a restaurant. Research shows that people are more likely to remember things that are consistent with their schemas than things that are not. The reverse is also true – people sometimes exhibit better recall if information really clashes with a schema.
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