Memory

heavenstaar
Mind Map by heavenstaar, updated more than 1 year ago
heavenstaar
Created by heavenstaar about 6 years ago
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psychology map

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Memory
  1. Processes - 1. Encoding: How memories are formed 2. Storage: How memories are kept over time 3. Retrieval: How memories are recovered and translated into performance
    1. Levels of encoding
      1. 1.Structural encoding - shallow processing 2.Phonemic encoding - intermediate processing 3.Semantic encoding - deep processing
    2. Sensory : Capacity to preserve sensory information in its original form for ¼ of a second.
      1. –Partial report (Sperling) - Classic experiment on visual sensory store - Tone cues participants which row to report- Tone comes after the array is gone -Much larger percent recalled, regardless of which row
      2. Short-Term Memory Capacity - George Miller - Number of items that can be recalled from short-term memory, in order, on half of the tested memory trials is about 7 plus or minus 2 items . Cowan that prevents subjects from chunking and rehearsing information shows it is likely 4 plus or minus 1.
        1. DIFFERENCES - Maintenance rehearsal – just done to keep it in memory. Elaborative rehearsal – think more about it so you are more likely to remember it later.
          1. .Long Term Memory- Unlimited capacity store that can hold information for days, weeks or years. Can be permanent.
            1. ROLES - •Conceptual Hierarchies: multilevel classification system •Schemas: An organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event which we understand from previous experience •Semantic Networks • Nodes represent concepts and are joined to related concepts See
          2. MEMORIES - Flashbulb memories - vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events. Recent research shows they may not be permanent and accurate.
            1. Memories can often be jogged with retrieval cues. One type of retrieval cue is called context cues. Reinstating the context e.g. crimestopers
              1. DIFFERENCES - Implicit Memory – remembering something you did not intend to memorize. Explicit Memory – intentionally remembering something. Declarative memory system handles factual information like definitions of words, math concepts, faces, dates. Procedural Memory system – memory for actions, skills and conditioned responses.
                1. Semantic – general facts & Episodic – personal facts and experiences. Prospective memory refers to recalling something you must do in the future retrospective memory – refers to remembering past events or facts
                2. Devices to improve memory - Distributed practice - Don’t try to remember everything at one time -- don’t cram. Acrostics - First letter of words in a sentence Every Good Boy Does Fine to remember the names of the lines on a musical staff . Acronyms - You make up a word from the first letter of information you need to remember . Narrative Methods - make a story or song . Rhymes - Thirty days hath September .
                3. FORGETTING - Ebbinghaus memorized 420 lists of these syllables and tested his memory after various time periods. Then he slowly started forgetting as time passed. So he concluded that most forgetting occurs right after learning something. This is called forgetting currve.
                  1. The three principal methods of measuring forgetting and retention are 1) recall, 2) recognition, and 3) relearning.
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