Synapses and Neural Pathways

Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

Degree Psychology (Neuroscience) Mind Map on Synapses and Neural Pathways, created by natalieclark29 on 12/02/2013.

Created by natalieclark29 almost 6 years ago
Psychology A1
Ellie Hughes
Memory Key words
Sammy :P
Psychology | Unit 4 | Addiction - Explanations
Geography - Population
Ebola Virus Disease
Rachael Jones
MCQs for Neuroscience
The Brain and the Nervous System
History of Psychology
Biological Psychology - Stress
Gurdev Manchanda
Synapses and Neural Pathways
1 How do we measure communication between neurons?
1.1 Electrically: neurophysiology
1.1.1 Branch of physiology that deals with the flow of ions
1.1.2 Electroencephalogram (EEG) Advantages Non-invasive High temporal resolution Disadvantages Low spatial resolution Only record from cortex
1.1.3 Multiple unit recording Records brain rhythms Synchronous firing produces measurable waves of activity Advantages Average spatial resolution Average temporal resolution Disadvantages Only records groups of neurons Invasive - mostly used on animals
1.1.4 Single unit extracellular Advantages Very high spatial resolution (multiple single neurons) High temporal resolution (action potentials) Disadvantages Invasive No knowledge of intracellular events
1.1.5 Intracellular Advantages Very high spatial resolution Examine sub-cellular processes Disadvantages Fragile electrodes One cell at a time Only in anaesthetised animals
1.2 Chemically: microdialysis
1.2.1 Invasive procedure
1.2.2 Slow - sample every few minutes
2 Communication between neurons
2.1 Frequency is important, not size
2.1.1 If the stimulus is weak, only a few action potentials will be fired.
2.2 Spike timing
2.2.1 Rhythms occur when a lot of neurons fire action potentials at the same time.
2.2.2 Timing of an action potential relative to a rhythm can change the information it carries
2.3 Neurotransmitters work on post-synaptic receptors on dendrites
2.3.1 Ionotropic receptors Transmit info quickly Simple mechanism
2.3.2 Metabotropic receptors Slow-acting and long lasting Complex mechanism
2.4 Two types of neurotransmitter
2.4.1 Excitatory Causes depolarisation Glutamate
2.4.2 Inhibitory Causes hyperpolarisation; stops action potentials from being generated GABA
2.4.3 Excitation/inhibition caused by open ion channels Four types
2.5 Autoreceptors
2.5.1 Bind to neurotransmitters released by the neuron on which they are situated
2.5.2 Can be anywhere on cell membrane; usually inhibitory; help self-regulate neurons

Media attachments