Cognitive Approach to Psychology

emilyoliviatapp
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AS Level Psychology Mind Map on Cognitive Approach to Psychology, created by emilyoliviatapp on 12/02/2013.

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emilyoliviatapp
Created by emilyoliviatapp almost 6 years ago
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Cognitive Approach to Psychology
1 KEY ASSUMPTIONS
1.1 Disorders are caused by faulty thinking.
1.2 Human behaviour is heavily influenced by the schemata (our core beliefs) which develop from early experiences.
1.2.1 Negative schemata can result from unhappy or traumatic childhoods.
1.3 Negative schemata lead to NEGATIVE AUTOMATIC THOUGHTS which are misplaced and dysfunctional because nobody can be good at everything.
1.3.1 Negative automatic thoughts are rapid and unconscious responses to situations, which produce COGNITIVE BIASES.
1.3.1.1 Cognitive biases prevent a person from seeing any positives in their life, reinforcing negative views.
1.3.1.1.1 EXAMPLES OF COGNITIVE BIASES
1.3.1.1.1.1 MINIMISATION. Crediting successes to external factors rather than yourself.
1.3.1.1.1.2 MAXIMISATION. Exaggerating the importance of small failures.
1.3.1.1.1.3 SELECTIVE ABSTRACTION. Focusing on negative aspects of life only. Ignoring the wider picture.
1.3.1.1.1.4 ALL OR NOTHING THINKING. Ignoring middle ground - either you think that you are a success at everything, or a success at nothing.
2 HOW FAULTY THINKING CAN CAUSE PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
2.1 BECK'S 1979 MODEL OF DEPRESSION.
2.1.1 3 negative schemata are needed to cause depression and this is called the negative triad.
2.1.1.1 Negative view of the self.
2.1.1.2 Negative view of the world.
2.1.1.3 Negative view of the future.
2.1.2 ATTRIBUTIONS are out interpretation of why things happen and they have three dimensions. Internal/external, specific/global, stable/unstable.
2.1.2.1 Depression = seeing negative events as internal, global & stable and positive events as external, specific & unstable.
2.2 ELLIS' ABC MODEL
2.2.1 Activating events (A) combine with beliefs (B) to produce particular consequences (C). Irrational beliefs (B), faulty thinking, will lead to inappropriate negative emotions (C).
3 EVALUATION OF THE COGNITIVE APPROACH
3.1 STRENGTHS
3.1.1 Clark, 1986, gave clear evidence that depression and anxiety disorders correlate with cognitive biases and faulty thinking.
3.1.2 Therapy based on the cognitive method (e.g. SIT) is very successful in treating depression and anxiety disorders.
3.1.3 Empowers the individual, this model places people in a far less passive position than others.
3.2 WEAKNESSES
3.2.1 Vagueness. The ideas of schemata and exactly how irrational thoughts should be measured lack clarity.
3.2.2 'Faulty thinking' and negative cognitive biases could be an effect rather than a cause.
3.2.3 The emphasis put on the person's faulty thinking could lead to blame being allotted.
3.2.4 The cognitive approach does not leave room for biological factors in psychopathology, and Bunney has shown that depression has links with low levels of serotonin.

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