Restless Earth

juliasutton
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Geography Edexcel Unit One restless earth

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juliasutton
Created by juliasutton almost 6 years ago
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Restless Earth
1 Layers of the Earth
1.1 Crust is the Surface of the Earth
1.1.1 Lithosphere
1.1.1.1 Split into Tectonic Plates
1.1.2 Two Types
1.1.2.1 Oceanic
1.1.2.1.1 Basalt
1.1.2.1.2 Solid
1.1.2.1.3 Denser
1.1.2.1.4 Always new being formed
1.1.2.1.4.1 When magma from the mantle cools
1.1.2.1.4.2 As plates move appart
1.1.2.2 Continental
1.1.2.2.1 Granite
1.1.2.2.2 Solid
1.1.2.2.3 Less Dense
1.1.2.2.4 Older
1.2 Inside the Earth is Hot
1.2.1 Know this because...
1.2.1.1 Hot Springs
1.2.1.2 Molten Lava from Volcanos
1.2.1.3 Geysers
1.2.2 Radio Active Decay of elements
1.2.2.1 e.g. Uranium
1.2.3 Geothermal Heat
1.2.4 Plumes
1.2.4.1 Upwellings in molten rock through the asthenosphere
1.2.4.1.1 To lithosphere forming a...
1.2.4.1.1.1 Hot Spot
2 Pangea
2.1 All continents joined
2.1.1 Super Continent
2.1.2 Know this because...
2.1.2.1 Same fossils found in...
2.1.2.1.1 Africa and South America
2.2 Split because of plate Tectonics
2.2.1 15 big ones
2.2.2 20 small ones
2.2.3 Very Slowly...
2.3 250 million years ago
3 Plate Boundaries
3.1 3 Types
3.2 Conservative
3.2.1 2 plates sliding past each other
3.2.1.1 Along a fault
3.2.2 No Volcanos
3.2.3 Lots of Earthquakes
3.2.3.1 Dsetructive
3.2.3.1.1 Up to 8.5 magnitude
3.2.3.2 Daily Tremmors
3.2.4 E.g. San Andres Fault
3.2.4.1 pacific and North American plates passing each other
3.3 Where Earthquakes and Volcanos usually occur
3.4 Consatructive
3.4.1 Two plate boundaries moving appart
3.4.1.1 Magma rises to fill the surface
3.4.1.1.1 can form a volcano
3.4.1.1.1.1 Don't erupt with much force
3.4.1.2 Earthquakes
3.4.1.2.1 Small
3.4.1.3 E.g. The mid Atlantic Ridge
3.4.1.3.1 In Iceland
3.4.1.3.2 Eurasian and North American plates pulling appart
3.5 Destructive
3.5.1 Continental and oceanic Plates colliding
3.5.1.1 Ocenaic plate is subducted under
3.5.1.1.1 Because it is denser
3.5.1.1.2 Starts to melt
3.5.1.1.2.1 Due to friction caused by movement
3.5.1.1.2.2 Is now melted hot, liquid, rock magma
3.5.1.1.2.2.1 Rises through the cracks in continental plate
3.5.2 E.g. Andres Mountains
3.5.2.1 In Chilie
3.5.2.2 Nazca Oceanic Plate is subducted under South American Continental Plate
3.5.3 Destructive Volcanos
3.5.3.1 8.5 manitude
3.6 Collision Zone
3.6.1 Type of destructive Boundary
3.6.2 2 of the same type of plate collide
3.6.2.1 Causes material between to buckle and rise
3.6.2.1.1 Forms fold mountains
3.6.3 E.g. Himalayas
3.6.3.1 Collision of African and Eurasian Plates
3.6.4 Destructive Earthquakes
3.6.5 Rare Volcanos
4 Mt St Helens
4.1 USA
4.1.1 Developped country
4.1.1.1 Can afford to spend money on..
4.1.1.1.1 monitering
4.1.1.1.2 protection
4.1.1.1.3 Evacuation
4.2 Destructive plate boundary
4.2.1 Pacific and North American plate boundary
4.3 lots of eruptions leading up to
4.4 Effects
4.4.1 Enviromental
4.4.1.1 70 mm of ash
4.4.1.1.1 falls across ares
4.4.1.2 2 million animals were killed
4.4.1.3 mudflows
4.4.1.3.1 Raised temperature of lakes and rivers
4.4.2 Economic
4.4.2.1 damage to crops
4.4.2.1.1 $175 million
4.4.2.2 Post office and other bussinesses
4.4.2.2.1 Shut down
4.4.2.2.1.1 In Cougar
4.5 Can be monitored and predicted
4.5.1 Can evacuate people
4.6 May 1980
5 Sichuan
5.1 Central China
5.2 May 2008
5.3 8 magnitude
5.4 Social Impacts
5.4.1 70 000 died
5.4.2 375 000 people died
5.4.3 5 million homeless
5.5 economic impacts
5.5.1 1 million
5.5.1.1 job losses
5.5.2 re buliding
5.5.2.1 $75 billion
5.6 Lots of aftershocks
5.7 Caused landslides
5.8 Responses
5.8.1 Local
5.8.1.1 hard because of...
5.8.1.1.1 heavy rain
5.8.1.1.2 landslides
5.8.1.1.3 aftershocks
5.8.1.2 Prime minister flew in
5.8.1.3 Soliders were sent
5.8.1.4 People donated £1.5 billion
5.8.2 International
5.8.2.1 UK gave $2 million
5.8.2.2 Lots of countries sent supplies
5.8.2.2.1 Tents
5.8.2.3 Nearby countries flew in rescue teams
5.9 Future...
5.9.1 Sctrict building rules
5.9.2 can be doe in poorer areas
5.10 Developing
6 Earthquake!
6.1 Epicentre
6.1.1 Point on surface directly above where it started
6.2 Seismic Waves
6.2.1 Waves of energy which cause the ground to shake
6.3 Focus
6.3.1 point where earthquake starts
7 Japan
7.1 March 2011
7.2 Effects
7.2.1 Tsunami
7.2.1.1 caused more deaths than earthquake
7.2.1.1.1 were not as prepared
7.2.2 Social
7.2.2.1 18000 deaths
7.2.2.2 Lots homeless
7.2.3 Economic
7.2.3.1 $360 billion in losses
7.2.4 Environmental
7.2.4.1 Radiation leaks
7.2.4.1.1 causes cancer
7.2.4.2 caused fires by damaged infrastructure
7.3 9.0 magnitude
7.4 developped
7.4.1 were prepared for earthquake
7.4.1.1 Strict building regulations

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