1 Working memory is the gateway to long-term memory
2 Long-term memory systems
2.1.1 Procedural (knowing how)
220.127.116.11 Learning a procedure
18.104.22.168 Includes motor memory
22.214.171.124 Improvement in identifying or processing a stimulus
as a result of its having been observed previously.
126.96.36.199 Perceptual priming
188.8.131.52.1 Words presented quickly and subjects asked to identify them
184.108.40.206.2 Some time later subjects are presented with word stems and asked to complete them
220.127.116.11.3 increased probability of choosing previously presented words
2.1.3 Classical conditioning
18.104.22.168 Conditioned Stimulus can illicit a conditioned response which is very similar to
the Unconditioned Response in the absence of the Unconditioned Stimulus
2.1.4 Non-associative learning
22.214.171.124 does not involve the association of two
stimuli to illicit a behavioural response
126.96.36.199.1 decrease in level of response through repeated exposure to a stimulus
188.8.131.52.1 Increase in level of response through repeated exposure to a stimulus
2.2.1 Semantic memory
184.108.40.206 memory for facts
2.2.2 Episodic Memory
220.127.116.11 Role of the hippocampus
18.104.22.168.2 recall predicted by single cells in human hippocampus
22.214.171.124 In animals?
126.96.36.199.1 birds choose the worms when they are fresh
but not when they have learnt they will be bad
188.8.131.52.1.1 remember what food they stored, where they stored and when they stored it.
184.108.40.206.2 Rats with hippocampus lesions cannot remember the combination
of what, where and which: deficit in episodic-like memory.
220.127.116.11 Receives and stores information about temporally dated episodes
or events and the temporal-spatial relations among these events.
18.104.22.168.1 What happened, where it happened, when it happened.
22.214.171.124.2 Autonoetic consciousness added later
3 Cellular Mechanisms for Memory Consolidation (Synaptic Plasticity)
3.1 Learning must involve changes in synaptic function
3.2 For long term memory these changes must be long lasting
3.2.1 Long term potentiation (LTP)
4 Spatial Memory and Navigation
4.1 Component of episodic memory
4.2 Map-like cognitive representation of familiar spatial locations.
4.3 Supported by right hippocampus
4.3.1 Posterior hippocampus larger in taxi drivers (more experience = bigger hippocampus) but not bus drivers
4.3.2 Damage impairs spatial ability in rats
4.3.3 Entorhinal cortex supports both
4.4 Place cells
126.96.36.199 “ …Each place cell receives two different inputs, one conveying information about a large number of environmental
stimuli or events, and the other from a navigational system which calculates where an animal is in an environment…”
4.4.2 67% of place cells on the central stem of the T-maze
differentiate between left and right turn trials.