acids, bases + salts (2)

charlotte_lucy_9
Mind Map by charlotte_lucy_9, updated more than 1 year ago
charlotte_lucy_9
Created by charlotte_lucy_9 about 7 years ago
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Chemistry Mind Map on acids, bases + salts (2), created by charlotte_lucy_9 on 04/10/2013.
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acids, bases + salts (2)
1 neutralisation reactions
1.1 when the H+(aq) ions from an acid react with the OH-(aq) ions from an alkali, a neutralisation reaction occurs to form water
1.2 e.g H+(aq) + OH-(aq) -> H20(l)
2 acids
2.1 when acids dissolve in water they produce aqueous hydrogen ions, H+ (aq)
2.2 e.g. hydrocholric acid
3 alkalis
3.1 when alkalis dissolve in water they produce aqueous hydroxide ions, OH- (aq)
3.2 e.g sodium hydroxide
4 state symbols
4.1 (s) - solid
4.2 (l) - liquid
4.3 (g) - gas
4.4 (aq) - aqueous (dissolves in water)
5 making soluble salts
5.1 when acids react with bases, a salt and water are made:
5.1.1 acid + metal oxide -> salt + water
5.1.2 acid + metal hydroxide -> salt + water
5.2 reactive metals
5.2.1 acids will react with reactive metals, such as magnesium and zinc, to make a salt and hydrogen:
5.2.1.1 acid + metal -> salt + hydrogen
5.2.1.2 the hydrogen causes bubbling during the reaction, this can be detected using a lighted splint
6 naming salts
6.1 the name of the salt in a neutralisation reaction can be predicted
6.1.1 if the first part of the name is 'ammonium' then the base used is ammonia, otherwise it's the name of the metal in the base
6.1.2 the second part of the name comes from the base used:
6.1.2.1 chloride - if hydrochloric acid is used
6.1.2.2 nitrate - if nitric acid is used
6.1.2.3 sulfate - of sulfuric acid is used
7 making insoluble salts
7.1 insoluble salts DO NOT dissolve in water
7.2 can be made by mixing appropriate solutions of ions together
7.3 e.g.silver chloride is insoluble, you need soluble silver salt and a soluble chloride salt to make it
7.3.1 silver nitrate and sodium chloride are both soluble, when you mix their solutions together you make:
7.3.1.1 soluble sodium nitrate
7.3.1.2 insoluble silver chloride
7.3.2 the silver chloride appears in tiny particles suspended in the reaction mixture, it forms a precipitate
7.3.2.1 the precipitate can be filtered, washed with water on the filter paper, and then dried in an oven
7.4 if you want to make an insoluble salt XY, mixing X nitrate with sodium Y will always work
7.4.1 in the e.g. X is silver and Y is chloride
8 using precipitation reactions
8.1 they can be used to remove unwanted ions in solutions, this is a useful way for treating drinking water and waste water
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