Marine Ecosystems and Biodiversity

DamieRoyle 1
Mind Map by DamieRoyle 1, updated more than 1 year ago
DamieRoyle 1
Created by DamieRoyle 1 over 4 years ago


Mind Map on Marine Ecosystems and Biodiversity, created by DamieRoyle 1 on 01/04/2016.

Resource summary

Marine Ecosystems and Biodiversity
1 Ecosystem
1.1 Definition
1.1.1 A community of interdependent organisms and the physical environment they inhabit (biotic and abiotic) Biotic Living portion of the organism's environment Plants Bacteria Abiotic Physical, or nonliving, environment in which an organism lives Temperature pH Light
1.2 Examples
1.2.1 Mangrove Forest
1.2.2 Rocky Shore
1.2.3 Coral Reef
1.3 Habitat
1.3.1 The place where organisms live The area surrounding hydrothermal vent provides a habitat for species of tube worms
1.4 Population
1.4.1 All of the organisms of the same species living in the same area A population of ghost crabs living on a sandy shore
1.5 Community
1.5.1 All the different species living in a habitat at the same time The mollusc community of a rocky shore, which would include all the different species of mollusc's living in this habitat
2 Biodiversity
2.1 Definition
2.1.1 Takes into account the numbers of different species present and the range of habitats and ecosystems
2.2 Coral reefs have high biodiversity with many species present
2.3 Sandy shores have a low biodiversity with relativly few different species present
2.4 Ecological niche
2.4.1 The role of an organism within an ecosystem
2.4.2 The niche of a great white shark is the top predator.
2.4.3 Two species cannot have the same role as one will outcompete the other
2.5 Interrelationships
2.5.1 Symbiosis/Mutalism "Sym" together "bio" life... An ecological relationship between orgainsms of two different species that live together in direct contact where both benefit in someway Corals and zooxanthellae Coral receives Oxygen and other nutrients Enhanced calcification Colouration Algae Receives Carbon dioxide and other substances that the algae needs for photosynthesis Protection
2.5.2 Commensalism Interaction between two different species in which one species benefits while the other is unaffected Remora on a shark
2.5.3 Parasitism Interaction between two different species where one organism benefits (parasite) while the other is harmed (host) Ectoparasites Live on the outside of the host Fish and lice Endoparasites Live in their host, often in the digestive tract, gills or muscle tissue Tapeworms and roundworms Tuna and nematodes (round worm)
2.6 High biodiversity
2.6.1 Has many species within one area
2.6.2 Each species usually has a more narrow niche which helps reduce overlap of roles between species and thus reduce competition
2.6.3 These ecosystems tend to be in area with high productivity
2.6.4 Corals reefs
2.7 Low biodiversity
2.7.1 Unstable and exteme habitats tend to have low biodiversity
2.7.2 Physical factors tend to change more here
2.7.3 Survival is more difficult
2.7.4 Sandy shores
2.8 R-Species
2.8.1 Most fish that try to populate quickly
2.8.2 Prefer unstable, changing enviroments
2.8.3 Called opportunists
2.8.4 Prefer survival at low population densities
2.9 K-Species
2.9.1 Most marine animals
2.9.2 Prefer stable and unchanging enviroments
3 Food Webs/Chains
3.1 Producers
3.1.1 organisms that use photosynthesis or chemosynthesis Algae or bacteria
3.1.2 An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms but by using energy from the sun or inorganic molecules Autotroph "self" + "feed"
3.2 Consumer
3.2.1 An organism that obtains its nutrition by feeding on other organisms
3.2.2 Primary
3.2.3 Secondary
3.2.4 Tertiary
3.2.5 Quaternary
4 Predator - Prey
4.1 Predator
4.1.1 An organism that cathes, kills and eats another animal to obtain energy and nutrients
4.2 Prey
4.2.1 That organism hunted or eaten for food by another
4.3 Adaption
4.3.1 Camouflage
4.3.2 Spines
4.3.3 Chemical deterrents
4.4 Shoaling
4.4.1 A large number of fish of the same species and approximately the same size/age grouped together for social reasons
4.4.2 Feeding Better foraging so less time wasted looking for food
4.4.3 Increased hydrodynamic efficiency Save energy swimming in coordinated way
4.4.4 Reproduction Increased chances of finding a mate and eggs and sperm are in close proximity for fertilisation
4.4.5 Avoiding predators Large shoals confuse predators, it is difficult for them to focus on one individual, also more eyes to spot predators
4.4.6 Tuna
4.4.7 Sardines
5 Succession
5.1 The gradual process of change that occurs in the community structure over a period of time
5.2 Tevnia
5.2.1 One of the first organisms to appear within a year is the tube worm tevnia
5.3 Riftia
5.3.1 A giant tubeworm, which can grow up to 2m long in dense colonies
5.4 Primary
5.4.1 Succession that occurs after the creation of a "blank slate" either through catastrophic disturbance oir creation of new land
5.5 Secondary
5.5.1 Succession that occurs after non-catastropic distrubance Fire Hurricane
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