(12) How far is the UK Parliamentary system becoming Presidential

Marcus  Danvers
Mind Map by Marcus Danvers, updated more than 1 year ago
Marcus  Danvers
Created by Marcus Danvers over 6 years ago
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A level Governing the UK - 2C ( Parliament) Mind Map on (12) How far is the UK Parliamentary system becoming Presidential, created by Marcus Danvers on 12/11/2013.
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(12) How far is the UK Parliamentary system becoming Presidential
1 Separation of Powers
1.1 Supreme court – replaced the House of Lords as the Highest Court of Appeal in 2009. Strengthens Judicial independence as breaks the link between courts and parliament. Law Lords used to sit in HoL constituting its appellate committee.
1.2 Separation of personnel
1.2.1 The Lord Chancellor – was once a threat to judicial independence as head of judiciary and a member of the cabinet. Since 2006 the role has been transferred to Lord Chief Justice and the Lord Chancellors influence over judicial appointments has been reduced. Under the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 the Lord Chancellor has to swear an oath to defend the independence of the judiciary
2 Collective Government through Cabinet
2.1 Presidentialism
2.1.1 Growth of "spational leadership"
2.1.1.1 This is the tendency of the PM's to distance themselves from the parties and governments by presenting themselves as "outsiders" or developing a personal ideological stance
2.1.2 Tendency towards "populist outreach".
2.1.2.1 This is the tendency for PM's to try to "reach out" directly to the public by claiming to articulate their deepest hopes and fears. It is evident in the growing tendency of the PM to speak for the nation over major events, politcal crises or simply high- profilr newsd stories.
2.1.2.2 It is also reflected in the "cult of the outsider", the attempt by PM's to present themselves as non-establishment figures on the side of the ordinary citizens
2.1.3 Personalized election campaigns
2.1.3.1 The mass media increasingly portrays elections as personalized battle between the PM and the leader of the oppostion. Party leader thus become the "brand image" of their parties or government, meaning that personality and image have become major determinants of political success or failure.
2.1.4 Personal mandate
2.1.4.1 This is the trend for PM's to claim popular authority on the basis of their electoral success. PM 's have therefore become the ideological consciences of their party or government, their chief source of conviction and policy direction.
2.1.5 Wider use of special advisors
2.1.5.1 PM's increasingly rely to hand-picked political advisors rather than on cabinet, ministers and senior civial servants. These advisors often have a personal loyalty to the PM rather than to the party or government.
2.1.6 Strenghtened Cabinet Office
2.1.6.1 The size and administrative resource available to the Cabinet Office have grown, turning it into a small-scale PM's department responsible for coordinating the rest of Whitehall
3 Vote of No Confidence
3.1 A parliamentary motion whose passing would demonstrate to the head of state that the elected parliament no longer has confidence in the appointed government.
3.2 Typically, when a parliament passes a vote of no confidence in an existing government, the head of state must respond in one of two ways: - ask another individual, whom he or she believes will command the confidence of parliament, to try to form a government - dissolve the elected parliament and call a general election to elect a new parliament
3.3 The 1979 vote of no confidence in the government of James Callaghan was a vote of no confidence in the British Labour Government of James Callaghan which occurred on the 28 March 1979.
3.3.1 The vote was brought by opposition leader Margaret Thatcher and was lost by the Labour Government by one vote—311 votes to 310—forcing a general election which led to the election of Margaret Thatcher.
3.4 In 2009 the proposed vote of no confidence in the Speaker of the House of Commons forced the resignation of Michael Martin.
4 Fixed Term Elections
4.1 5th July 2011
4.2 Nick Clegg announced plans for fixed -term Parliaments, in which the govt. could be removed by a 2/3 majority of the House of Commons - thus forcing a general election before the date of the next election
4.3 Fixed-term Parliaments Bill received Royal Assent on 15.09.11.
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