Congenital Heart Disease

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Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

University Cardic Disease Mind Map on Congenital Heart Disease, created by hanners on 12/11/2013.

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Created by hanners almost 6 years ago
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Congenital Heart Disease
1 structural defects present from birth
1.1 more successful surgical treatments
1.1.1 more survival to adulthood
2 Atrial or Ventricular Septal Defects
2.1 Abnormal opening between either right and left atria or right and left ventricle
2.1.1 blood moves through defect from higher pressure on left side to lower pressure right
2.1.1.1 extra blood may cause volume overload
2.1.1.1.1 enlargement of right side
2.1.1.1.1.1 heart failure
2.1.1.1.1.1.1 aggravated by hypertension
2.1.1.1.1.2 over time can cause overload of entire pulmonary vasculature
2.1.1.1.1.2.1 develop pulmonary hypertension
2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1 divert extra blood volume away from the lungs
2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1 causes changes in the lungs which will increase pressure in the right side of the heart
2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1 will reverse pressure gradient
2.1.1.1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 shunt will reverse
3 Patent Ductus Arteriosis
3.1 remnant of fetal life
3.1.1 fetal circulation adapted to bypass lungs
3.1.1.1 temporary structure- ductus arteriosus between pulmonary artery and aorta
3.1.1.1.1 rarely does not close after birth
3.1.1.1.1.1 patent DA allows oxygenated blood to flow down and pressure gradient from aorta to pulmonary artery
3.1.1.1.1.1.1 some of the oxygenated blood does not reach body
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 pulmonary hypertension develops over time
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 heart rate increases to move sufficient blood around body
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 untreated? leads to heart failure
4 Pulmonary or Aortic Stenosis
4.1 narrowing of pulmonary artery or aorta as it leaves heart
4.1.1 limits blood flow in either pulmonary or systemic system
5 Eisenmenger's Syndrome
5.1 Large left-right shunt of blood is not corrected (ASD, VSD, PDA)
5.1.1 Increase pulmonary blood flow
5.1.1.1 fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension and cyanosis
5.1.1.1.1 right heart pressure exceeds left and shunt reverses worsening cyanosis
5.1.1.1.1.1 advised against pregnancy. mortality 30-50%
5.1.1.1.1.1.1 increased fetal prematurity
6 Marfan's Syndrome
6.1 autosomal dominant defect on chromosome 15
6.1.1 connective tissue disease
6.1.1.1 affects musculoskeletal, cardiovascular systems and eyes
6.1.1.1.1 elastic fibres in the media of blood vessels weaken
6.1.1.1.1.1 dilatation of ascending and descending aorta
6.1.1.1.1.1.1 lead to dissection or rupture or both
6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 occurs at av. 32yrs
6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 premature death
6.2 50% chance of child inheriting it if one parent is affected
6.2.1 couples carefully counselled if affected before embarking on pregnancy
6.2.1.1 minimal cardiovascular involvement and aortic root dimensions have better outcomes
6.2.1.1.1 careful monitoring req. throughout pregancy
6.2.1.1.1.1 prophylactic antihypertensive treatment with beta-blockers recommended
7 Fallot's Tetralogy
7.1 4 major defects
7.1.1 VSD, Pulmonary Stenosis, Overriding Aorta and Right ventricular hypertrophy
7.1.1.1 reduced oxygenation of blood
7.1.1.1.1 life long follow up needed
7.1.1.1.1.1 pulmonary valve may become leaky as heart grows.

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