The Research Enterprise In Psychology

Brianna  Carter
Mind Map by Brianna Carter, updated more than 1 year ago
Brianna  Carter
Created by Brianna Carter about 4 years ago
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The Research Process of psychology
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The Research Enterprise In Psychology
1 The Scientific Approach
1.1 Goals
1.1.1 Measurement & Description

Annotations:

  • Scientists commitment to observation requires that an investigation figures out a way to measure phenomenon and study 
1.1.2 Understanding & Prediction

Annotations:

  • A higher level goal of science is understanding. Scientists believe that understand events when they can explain the reasons for occurrence of events. Scientists also make predictions otherwise known as a "hypothesis". A hypothesis is a tenative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. Variables are any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviours that are controlled or observed in a study.
1.1.3 Application & Control

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  • This stage is where scientists hope that the information gathered is of practical value in helping solve everyday issues. & Also once people understand a phenomena, they often have more control over it
1.2 Steps in Investigation

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  • 1. Formulate a testable hypothesis  2. Select a method of study & design the study3. Collect the data4. Analyze the data and draw conclusions 5. Report findings 
1.3 Advantages

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  • -Clarity and precision yield better communication  -intolerance of error yields more reliable data
1.4 Research Approaches

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  • Qualitative Methods : gathers information through observations and interveiws  Quantitative: data are collected through measuring things - includes facts and statistics 
2 Experimental Research
2.1 Elements

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  • Independent Variable (IV): condition or event manipulated by experimenter Dependent Variable (DV): aspect of behaviour thought to be affected by independent variable  Experimental Group: participants who receive special treatment  Control Group: similar subjects who do not receive treatment given to experimental group  Extraneous Variables: factors besides IV that might affect DV, hence they need to be controlled  
2.2 Variations

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  • -Can have one group of subjects serve as their own control group -can manipulate more than one independent variable in a study  -can use multiple dependent variables in a study
2.3 Advantages/Disadvantages

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  • Advantages : - Permits conclusions about cause and effect relationships  Disadvantages : - Manipulations and control often make experiments artificial  - Practical realities and ethical concerns make it impossible to conduct experiments on many issues
3 Descriptive/Correlation Research
3.1 Methods
3.1.1 Naturalistic Observations

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  • Careful, systematic observation, but no intervention with subjects 
3.1.2 Case Study

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  • In-depth investigation of single participant, typically involving data from many sources 
3.1.3 Survey
3.2 Advantages/Disadvantages

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  • Advantages: Broadens the scope of phenomena that psychologists can study ( can explore issues that could not be examined with experimental methods) Disadvantages: Cannot demonstrate that two variables are casually related 
4 Statistics
4.1 Basic Descriptive Statistics

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  • Frequency polygons are graphs used to present data from a frequency distribution. The normal distribution, or bell shaped curve, is one common type of distribution.
  • Three measures of central tendency are the median (centre score), the mean (arithmetic average), and the mode (most frequent score).
  • The mean tends to be the most useful index of central tendency, but the median may be better if the mean is inflated by a few extreme scores
  • The standard deviation is an index of the amount of variability in a data set
4.2 Inferential Statistics

Annotations:

  • Inferential statistics are used to interpret data and draw conclusions.
  • Hypothesis testing involves making calculations to determine whether research results are statistically significant.  Statistical significance exists when the probability that observed findings are due to chance is very low
4.3 Correlation

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  • Correlation exists when two variables are related to each other 
  •  Two types of correlation  Positive: variables co-vary in the same direction Negative: variables co-vary in the opposite direction 
  • Correlation Coefficient: Numerical index of degree of relationships between two variables  Strength: The closer the correlation to either -1.00 or +1.00, the stronger the relationship  Prediction: The stronger the correlation, the better one can predict. Causation: Correlation is not equivalent to causation
4.4 Meta-Analysis

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  • Combines statistical results of many studies of the same question  Results yield an estimate of the size and consistancy of a variables effects
5 Common Flaws in Research
5.1 Sampling Bias

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  • Exists when a sample is not representative of the population
5.2 Placebo Effects

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  • Occurs when participants expectations lead them to experience some change even though they receive empty of fake treatment 
5.3 Distortions In Self-report Data

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  • Results from problems, such as social desirability bias and response sets, that happen when participants give verbal accounts of behaviour 
5.4 Experimenter Bias

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  • Occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcomes of a study influence the results obtained 
6 Ethical Issues
6.1 Ethical Guidelines for Research in Canada

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  • Principle 1: Respect for the dignity of persons 
  • Principle 2: Responsible & Caring 
  • Principle 3: Integrity in relationships
  • Principle 4: Responsibility to society
6.2 Important Ethical Issues

Annotations:

  • Deception: should researchers be permitted to mislead research participants ??
  • Animals Research: Should researchers be permitted to subject animals to harmful or painful procedures ??
7 Key Terms

Annotations:

  • Psychology is Empirical: It is based soon objective observations made through research
  • Psychology is Theoretically Diverse: A variety of perspectives are needed to enhance our understanding of behaviour
  • Theory: Is a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
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