Lecture 2- Introduction to Biological Molecules

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Biology- Semester 1 (Lecture 2- Introduction to Biological Molecules ) Mind Map on Lecture 2- Introduction to Biological Molecules, created by emma_moran on 12/18/2013.

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Lecture 2- Introduction to Biological Molecules
1 Important Macromolecules
1.1 Carbohydrates
1.2 Lipids
1.3 Proteins
1.4 Nucleic acids
2 Monomers
2.1 Monomers join together with covalent bonds to form long chains or macromolecules known as polymers
3 Polymer Formation
3.1 Formed by a type of condensation reaction known as dehydration synthesis
3.2 A molecule of water is formed and removed from the reactants joined during the reaction
3.3 H2O is formed from the loss of a hydroxyl group (OH-) from one reactant and a hydrogen (H-) from the other
3.4 Diagram
4 Polymer Breakdown
4.1 Polymers are broken down by a process known as hydrolysis
4.2 Bonds between reactants are broken down with the addition of a molecule of water
4.3 The hydroxyl (-OH) group of a water molecule bonds with one reactant and the hydrogen (-H) bonds to its neighbour
4.4 Energy held in the bond is released and stored in the form of ATP
4.5 Diagram
5 Digestion of polymers
5.1 Polymers like starch are broken down into smaller sugar units which are easily absorbed across the gut
5.2 The hydrolysis reaction requires help from digestive enzymes
6 Water
6.1 Roles in The Body
6.1.1 Universal solvent and transporter
6.1.2 Lubricant
6.1.3 Regulates body temperature
6.2 The Water Molecule
6.2.1 1) The oxygen atom contains 8 positively charged elected protons in its nucleus
6.2.2 2) Each hydrogen atom contains only 1 positively charged proton in its nucleus
6.2.3 3) The electron pair shared in each O-H covalent bond is therefore more strongly attracted to the oxygen nucleus than to either of the hydrogen nuclei
6.2.4 4) This makes the water molecule polar with a slightly negative pole near the oxygen and a slightly positive pole near the hydrogen
6.3 Hydrogen Bonding
6.3.1 The delta + near the hydrogen atom is attracted to the delta - near the oxygen atom of a neighbouring water molecule
6.3.2 This results in the formation of a hydrogen bond between two water molecules
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