Limestone, Metals And Alloys

Ellie Hatten
Mind Map by Ellie Hatten, updated more than 1 year ago
Ellie Hatten
Created by Ellie Hatten about 4 years ago
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Science C1 revision
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Limestone, Metals And Alloys
1 Limestone
1.1 Limestone Aka CaCO3 or calcium carbonate.
1.1.1 Uses: *Strong building material *Paint *Toothpaste *Concreate ect.
1.1.2 Limestone cycle
1.1.2.1 calcium carbonate has heat added to make it become...
1.1.2.1.1 Calcium oxide and carbon dioxide which is mixed with water to form...
1.1.2.1.1.1 Calcium hydroxide also known as lime water if you continue to add water it becomes...
1.1.2.1.1.1.1 a calcium hydroxide solution which you can add carbon dioxide to form...
1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1
1.1.2.2 Equations CaCO3 ------> CaO + CO2 CaO + H2O ------> CaH2O + O CaH2O + CO2 ------> CaCO3
1.1.3 Limestone reacts with acid which is why Limestone building will wear away in acid rain
1.1.3.1 acid rain is caused by burning fossil fuels which creates sulfur. This sulfur will go into the atmosphere and react with the water in the clouds forming sulfuric acid aka acid rain.
1.1.4 to get Limestone out of the ground you have to quarry it.
1.1.4.1 advantages: -money into local economy -more transport roots are created for the machines -get strong building material -Local employment
1.1.4.2 disadvantages: -damage to enviroment and habitats -pollution: noise, dust and carbon dioxide -eye sore -disruptive
2 alloys are a mixture of 2 or more metals
2.1 they tend to share to the properties of their reactants which is why a lot of softer metals are alloyed to make them less susceptible to damage.
2.1.1 for example gold would be alloyed so it doesn't dent and break immediately
2.2 alloys are strong and less flexible.
2.2.1 this is because the now have ions of different sizes that brake to ordinary line pattern so they can't slide as easily.
3 Metals
3.1 atomic structure
3.1.1 The atoms are arranged in neat ordered rows which allow them to slide over each other and bend. The Ions are all the same size and have no actual bonds between them they are joined by positive and negative attraction.
3.1.1.1 The atoms are held together by electrostatic forces, when the atoms became ions they lost electrons so the force is the attraction between the positive ions and negative electorons that are delocalised and floating around between them.
3.2 Ore - the basic form of a metal found in the ground
3.2.1 To get the ores out they use a number of diffrent techniques.
3.2.1.1 mining- the most common one involving digging up the ground to find and extract the ore. Only worth while in Ore rich areas.
3.2.1.2 Phytomining- the process of using plants to absorb the ore from weak traces and burning the plants to get the ore. Good because cheaper but takes a long time. However a bonus is that you can make energy in the process.
3.2.1.3 bioleaching- using bacteria and small microorganisms to collect the ore and it can later be extracted from them. this is also good for small traces of ore.
3.2.2 purification
3.2.2.1 Displacement- when one element is more reactive than the other to most reactive one takes the impurities away . for example copper sulphate + iron will make iron sulphate and copper. This displacement is usualy done by smelting the ore with either carbon or scrap iron in a blast furnace.
3.2.2.2 electrolysis- usually used for more reactive ores, electrolysis uses an electric current flowing around 2 pieces of ore(the anode and cathode). this current caused the ions of the anode to go to the cathode that has a negative charge and take the electrons of the cathode away from the anode so eventually all the impurities are taken and the anode Is pure and the cathode is only impurities
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