Chapter 3: The Biological Bases of Behaviour (map 2 of 2)

Michelle Lamb
Mind Map by Michelle Lamb, updated more than 1 year ago
Michelle Lamb
Created by Michelle Lamb about 4 years ago
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104 Psychology Mind Map on Chapter 3: The Biological Bases of Behaviour (map 2 of 2), created by Michelle Lamb on 02/14/2016.

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Chapter 3: The Biological Bases of Behaviour (map 2 of 2)
1 The Brain and Behaviour
1.1 The brain can be divided into 3 major regions
1.1.1 Hindbrain
1.1.1.1 Cerebellum
1.1.1.1.1 literally means "little brain"
1.1.1.1.1.1 adjacent to the back surface of the brainstem
1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Plays a key role in organizing the sensory information. critical to the coordination of movement and to the sense of equilibrium
1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 damage to the cerebellum disrupts fine motor skills
1.1.1.2 Medulla
1.1.1.2.1 attaches to the spinal cord
1.1.1.2.1.1 in charge of largely unconscious but vital functions
1.1.1.3 Pons
1.1.1.3.1 literally means "bridge"
1.1.1.3.1.1 includes a bridge of fibres that connects the brainstem with the cerebellum.
1.1.2 Midbrain
1.1.2.1 is the segment of the brainstem that lies between the hindbrain and the forbrain.
1.1.2.1.1 contains an area that is concerned with intergrating sensory processes such as vision and hearing
1.1.2.1.1.1 Reticular formation runs through the hind and mind brain. Contributes to modulation of muscle reflexes, breathing and pain perception. Best know for regulation of sleep and arousal.
1.1.3 Forebrain
1.1.3.1 Is the largest and most complex region of the brain. Encompassing a variety of structures.
1.1.3.1.1 Thalamus
1.1.3.1.1.1 is the structure in the forebrain which all sensory information (except smell) must pass to get to the cerebral cortex
1.1.3.1.1.1.1 appears to play an active role in integrating information from various senses
1.1.3.1.1.1.1.1 Picture below taken from pg 100 of the 4th edition of pychology themes and variations
1.1.3.1.2 Hypothalamus
1.1.3.1.2.1 Is found near the base of the forebrain,laying beneath the thalamus.
1.1.3.1.2.1.1 involved in the regulation of basic biological needs
1.1.3.1.2.1.1.1 Controls the autonomic nervous system
1.1.3.1.2.1.1.1.1 serves as a vital link between the brain and endocrine system
1.1.3.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 Plays a major role in regulating the biological drives related to survival

Annotations:

  • - 4 "F"'s fighting, fleeing, feeding and mating.
1.1.3.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Contributes to the control of hunger, thrist and temperature regulation and other basic biological processes
1.1.3.1.3 Limbic System

Annotations:

  • - Limbic system is a loosely connected network of structures located on the border between the cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical areas.
1.1.3.1.3.1 limbic means edge
1.1.3.1.3.1.1 Is NOT a well defined anatomical system with clear boundaries
1.1.3.1.3.1.1.1 Involved in the regulation of emotion, memory and motivation
1.1.3.1.4 Cerebrum

Annotations:

  • -Seat of complex thought
1.1.3.1.4.1 The wrinkled surface of the cerebrum is the cerebral cortex-the outer layer of the brain which looks like a cauliflower
1.1.3.1.4.1.1 Responsible for the most complex mental activities, learning, remembering, thinking and consciousness
1.1.3.1.4.1.1.1 Divided into two hemispheres right and left
1.1.3.1.4.1.1.1.1 Corpus callosum is the structure that connects the 2 cerebral hemispheres.
1.1.3.1.4.1.1.1.1.1 Each hemisphere is divided into 4 lobes
1.1.3.1.4.1.1.1.1.1.1 OCCIPITAL LOBE

Annotations:

  • - Found at the back of the head, includes the cortical area where most visual signals are sent and the visual process is begun. this is called the VISUAL CORTEX
1.1.3.1.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 PARIETAL LOBE

Annotations:

  • - Is forward of the occipital lobe. -includes the area that registers the sense of touch. -Called the PRIMARY SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX -Involved in integrating  visual input and in monitoring the body's position in space.
1.1.3.1.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 TEMPORAL LOBE

Annotations:

  • -Means near the temples. -lies below the parietal lobe -contains an area devoted to auditory processing called the AUDITORY CORTEX
1.1.3.1.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 FRONTAL LOBE

Annotations:

  • -Largest lobe in the human brain -Contains the principle areas that control  the movement of muscles, called the MOTOR CORTEX
1.1.3.1.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Mirror neurons

Annotations:

  • - are neurons that are activated by performing an action or by seeing another monkey or human perform the same action. -Discovered by accident
1.2 Brain Plasticity
1.2.1 Refers to the brain's ability to change structure and function
1.2.1.1 Neurogenesis is the formation of new neurons
2 Right Brain/Left brain: Cerebral Laterality
2.1 2 important parts of the brain dealing with speech
2.1.1 Broca's area plays an important role in PRODUCTION of speech
2.1.2 Wernicke's area found in the temporal lobe of the left hemisphere. is used for COMPREHENSION of language.
2.2 Split Brain Research
2.2.1 Split brain surgery

Annotations:

  • - The bundle of fibres that connects the cerebral hemispheres(corpus callosum) is cut to reduce the severity of epileptic seizures - choosen only for the most severe cases. - create a unique study opportunity
2.2.1.1 Each hemisphere's primary connections are to the opposite side of the body.IE left hemisphere controls and communicates with the righht side of the body
2.2.1.1.1 Information received by one hemisphere is readily shared with the other via the corpus callosum.
2.2.1.1.1.1 When the two hemispheres are surgically disconnected, functional specialization of the brain becomes apparent.
2.2.1.1.2 Picture above taken from pg 108 of the 4th edition of psychology themes and variations
2.2.2 Hemispheric Specialization
2.2.2.1 Left
2.2.2.1.1 Better on tasks involving verbal processing, such as language, speech, reading, and writing
2.2.2.2 Right
2.2.2.2.1 Better on tasks involving nonverbal processing,like spatial, music, and visual recognition tasks ans tasks involvingthe perception of other's emotions.
3 The Endocrine System: Another Way to Communicate
3.1 Endocrine System
3.1.1 Consists of glands that release hormones into the bloodstream; hormones help to control the bodily functioning
3.1.1.1 hormonal messages travel to distant cells at slower speeds that neural messages and tend to be less specific
3.1.1.1.1 Hormone release tends to be pulsatile

Annotations:

  • -Pulsatile means hormones tend to be released several times a day in brief bursts or pulses that last only minutes
3.1.1.1.1.1 Is controlled by the nervous system through the hypothalamus.
3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Pituitary gland is the "master gland" releasing a great variety of hormones that stimulate actions in the other endocrine glands
3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Hormones help to modulate human physiological development.
4 Heredity & Behaviour: Is it All in the Genes?
4.1 Behavioural Genetics - an interdisciplinary field that studies the influence of genetic factors on behavioural traits
4.2 HOMOZYGOUS CONDITION 2 genes in a specific pair are the same. HETEROZYGOUS CONDITION the genes are different
4.2.1 GENOTYPE refers to a person's genetic makeup.
4.2.1.1 Is determined at conception and is fixed forever.
4.2.2 PHENOTYPE refers to the ways in which a person's genotype is manifested in observable characteristics.
4.2.2.1 Phenotypic characteristics (ie hair color) may change over time and may also be modified by environmental factors.
4.3 Investigating Hereditary Influence:Research Methods
4.3.1 Family Studies
4.3.1.1 Researcher asses hereditary influence by examining blood relatives to see how much they resemble one another on a specific trait
4.3.2 Twin Studies
4.3.2.1 Researchers asses hereditary influence by comparing the resemblance of identical twins and fraternal twins with respect to a trait
4.3.3 Adoption Studies
4.3.3.1 Asses hereditary influence by examining the resemblance between adopted children and both their biological and their adoptive parents
5 The Evolutionary Bases of Behaviour
5.1 Darwin's Insights
5.1.1 Identified Natural selection as the mechanism that orchestrates the process of evolution
5.1.1.1 four crucial insights
5.1.1.1.1 #1 Organisms very in endless ways
5.1.1.1.2 #2 Some of these characteristics are heritable
5.1.1.1.3 #3 organisms tend to produce offspring at a pace that out strips the local availability of food supplies, living space and other crucial resources
5.1.1.1.4 #4 if a specific heritable trait contributes to an organism's survival or reproductive success, organisms with that trait should produce more offspring and the prevalence of that trait should gradually increase over generations resulting in evolutionary change
5.2 Refinements to Evolutionary Theory
5.2.1 Mutation is a spontaneous, heritable change in a piece of DNA that occurs in an individual organism
5.2.1.1 Most mutations are NOT beneficial
5.2.2 Adaptation is an inherited characterisitc that increased in a population(through natural selection) because it helped solve a problem of survival or reproduction during the time it emerged.
5.3 Behaviours as Adaptive Traits
5.3.1 Darwin recognized natural selection was applicable to behavioural traits
5.3.1.1 Many behavioural adaptations are designed to improve an organism's chances at reproductive sucess
5.3.1.2 Impact of genetic makeup depends on environment, and the impact of environment depends on genetic makeup.
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