Chapter 3: The Biological
Bases of Behaviour (map 2
1 The Brain and Behaviour
1.1 The brain can be divided into 3 major regions
220.127.116.11.1 literally means "little brain"
18.104.22.168.1.1 adjacent to the back surface of the
22.214.171.124.1.1.1 Plays a key role in organizing the sensory
information. critical to the coordination of
movement and to the sense of equilibrium
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 damage to the cerebellum disrupts fine
184.108.40.206.1 attaches to the spinal cord
220.127.116.11.1.1 in charge of largely unconscious
but vital functions
18.104.22.168.1 literally means "bridge"
22.214.171.124.1.1 includes a bridge of fibres
that connects the brainstem
with the cerebellum.
126.96.36.199 is the segment of the brainstem that lies between the
hindbrain and the forbrain.
188.8.131.52.1 contains an area that is concerned with intergrating sensory
processes such as vision and hearing
184.108.40.206.1.1 Reticular formation runs through the hind and mind brain.
Contributes to modulation of muscle reflexes, breathing
and pain perception. Best know for regulation of sleep and
220.127.116.11 Is the largest and most complex region of the brain.
Encompassing a variety of structures.
18.104.22.168.1.1 is the structure in the forebrain which all
sensory information (except smell) must pass
to get to the cerebral cortex
22.214.171.124.1.1.1 appears to play an active role in
integrating information from various
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 Picture below taken from pg 100 of the 4th
edition of pychology themes and variations
184.108.40.206.2.1 Is found near the base of the
forebrain,laying beneath the thalamus.
220.127.116.11.2.1.1 involved in the regulation of basic
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 Controls the autonomic nervous system
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.1 serves as a vital link between the brain and
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1.1 Plays a major role in regulating the biological drives
related to survival
- 4 "F"'s fighting, fleeing, feeding and mating.
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.1.1 Contributes to the control of hunger, thrist and
temperature regulation and other basic biological processes
126.96.36.199.3 Limbic System
- Limbic system is a loosely connected network of structures located on the border between the cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical areas.
188.8.131.52.3.1 limbic means edge
184.108.40.206.3.1.1 Is NOT a well defined anatomical
system with clear boundaries
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168 Involved in the regulation of emotion, memory and motivation
-Seat of complex thought
22.214.171.124.4.1 The wrinkled surface of the cerebrum is
the cerebral cortex-the outer layer of the
brain which looks like a cauliflower
126.96.36.199.4.1.1 Responsible for the most
complex mental activities,
learning, remembering, thinking
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 Divided into two hemispheres right and left
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1 Corpus callosum is the structure that
connects the 2 cerebral hemispheres.
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.1.1 Each hemisphere is divided into 4 lobes
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1.1.1 OCCIPITAL LOBE
- Found at the back of the head, includes the cortical area where most visual signals are sent and the visual process is begun. this is called the VISUAL CORTEX
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124 PARIETAL LOBE
- Is forward of the occipital lobe.
-includes the area that registers the sense of touch.
-Called the PRIMARY SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX
-Involved in integrating visual input and in monitoring the body's position in space.
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1 TEMPORAL LOBE
-Means near the temples.
-lies below the parietal lobe
-contains an area devoted to auditory processing called the AUDITORY CORTEX
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1.1 FRONTAL LOBE
-Largest lobe in the human brain
-Contains the principle areas that control the movement of muscles, called the MOTOR CORTEX
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1.1.1 Mirror neurons
- are neurons that are activated by performing an action or by seeing another monkey or human perform the same action.
-Discovered by accident
1.2 Brain Plasticity
1.2.1 Refers to the brain's ability to change
structure and function
220.127.116.11 Neurogenesis is the formation of new neurons
2 Right Brain/Left brain: Cerebral Laterality
2.1 2 important parts of the brain dealing
2.1.1 Broca's area plays an important
role in PRODUCTION of speech
2.1.2 Wernicke's area found in the temporal lobe of
the left hemisphere. is used for
COMPREHENSION of language.
2.2 Split Brain Research
2.2.1 Split brain surgery
- The bundle of fibres that connects the cerebral hemispheres(corpus callosum) is cut to reduce the severity of epileptic seizures
- choosen only for the most severe cases.
- create a unique study opportunity
18.104.22.168 Each hemisphere's
are to the opposite
side of the body.IE
the righht side of the
22.214.171.124.1 Information received by one hemisphere
is readily shared with the other via the
126.96.36.199.1.1 When the two hemispheres are
surgically disconnected, functional
specialization of the brain becomes
188.8.131.52.2 Picture above taken from pg 108 of the 4th
edition of psychology themes and
2.2.2 Hemispheric Specialization
184.108.40.206.1 Better on tasks involving verbal
processing, such as language, speech,
reading, and writing
220.127.116.11.1 Better on tasks involving
nonverbal processing,like spatial,
music, and visual recognition
tasks ans tasks involvingthe
perception of other's emotions.
3 The Endocrine System: Another Way to Communicate
3.1 Endocrine System
3.1.1 Consists of glands that release hormones into the
bloodstream; hormones help to control the bodily
18.104.22.168 hormonal messages travel to distant cells at slower speeds that
neural messages and tend to be less specific
22.214.171.124.1 Hormone release tends to be pulsatile
-Pulsatile means hormones tend to be released several times a day in brief bursts or pulses that last only minutes
126.96.36.199.1.1 Is controlled by the nervous system through the hypothalamus.
188.8.131.52.1.1.1 Pituitary gland is the "master gland" releasing a great variety of
hormones that stimulate actions in the other endocrine glands
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 Hormones help to modulate human physiological development.
4 Heredity & Behaviour: Is it All in the Genes?
4.1 Behavioural Genetics - an
interdisciplinary field that studies the
influence of genetic factors on
4.2 HOMOZYGOUS CONDITION 2 genes
in a specific pair are the same.
HETEROZYGOUS CONDITION the
genes are different
4.2.1 GENOTYPE refers to a person's genetic makeup.
18.104.22.168 Is determined at conception and
is fixed forever.
refers to the
22.214.171.124 Phenotypic characteristics (ie hair color) may change
over time and may also be modified by
126.96.36.199 Researcher asses hereditary influence by examining
blood relatives to see how much they resemble one
another on a specific trait
4.3.2 Twin Studies
188.8.131.52 Researchers asses hereditary influence by
comparing the resemblance of identical
twins and fraternal twins with respect to a
4.3.3 Adoption Studies
184.108.40.206 Asses hereditary influence by examining the resemblance between adopted children and both
their biological and their adoptive parents
5 The Evolutionary Bases of Behaviour
5.1 Darwin's Insights
5.1.1 Identified Natural selection as the mechanism that orchestrates the process of evolution
220.127.116.11 four crucial insights
18.104.22.168.1 #1 Organisms very in endless ways
22.214.171.124.2 #2 Some of these characteristics are heritable
126.96.36.199.3 #3 organisms tend to produce offspring at
a pace that out strips the local availability
of food supplies, living space and other
188.8.131.52.4 #4 if a specific heritable trait contributes to an
organism's survival or reproductive success, organisms
with that trait should produce more offspring and the
prevalence of that trait should gradually increase over
generations resulting in evolutionary change
5.2 Refinements to Evolutionary Theory
5.2.1 Mutation is a spontaneous, heritable change in a piece of DNA that occurs in an individual organism
184.108.40.206 Most mutations are NOT beneficial
5.2.2 Adaptation is an inherited characterisitc that increased in a population(through natural selection) because it helped solve a
problem of survival or reproduction during the time it emerged.
5.3 Behaviours as Adaptive Traits
5.3.1 Darwin recognized natural selection was
applicable to behavioural traits
220.127.116.11 Many behavioural adaptations are designed to improve an
organism's chances at reproductive sucess
18.104.22.168 Impact of genetic makeup depends on environment, and the impact of
environment depends on genetic makeup.