GCSE AQA Chemistry 2 Bonding

Lilac Potato
Mind Map by Lilac Potato, updated more than 1 year ago
Lilac Potato
Created by Lilac Potato about 4 years ago
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Mind map showing information about bonding including ionic bonding, covalent bonding and metallic bonding.

Resource summary

GCSE AQA Chemistry 2 Bonding
1 Atoms
1.1 Mass no. -> total no. of protons and neutrons
1.1.1 Electrons not counted because their mass is negligible
1.2 Atomic no. -> no. of protons
1.3 Compounds
1.3.1 Atoms of two or more elements are chemically combined
2 Isotopes
2.1 Different atomic forms of the same element which have the same no. of protons but a different no. of neutrons
2.2 Same atomic no. but different mass no.
3 Ionic Bonding
3.1 Atoms gain/lose electrons to form charged particles (ions)
3.1.1 Strongly attracted to each other
3.2 Shells with 1/2 outer electrons want to get rid so left with full shells
3.2.1 Metals lose to form positive ions
3.3 Nearly full shells want to gain to get full shell
3.3.1 Non-metals gain to form negative ions
3.4 Ionic compounds
3.4.1 Giant regular ionic lattice structure
3.4.1.1 Strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions
3.4.2 Properties - high melting & boiling points, will carry electric current when molten & dissolve easily in water
4 Covalent Bonding
4.1 Sharing electrons
4.1.1 In their outer shells
4.2 Both atoms feel like they have a full outer shell
4.3 Non-metals only
4.4 Covalent substances
4.4.1 Simple Molecular
4.4.1.1 Atoms form strong CBs to form small molecules
4.4.1.1.1 Intermolecular forces - v. weak
4.4.1.1.1.1 Melting & boiling points v. low - bonds easily broken
4.4.1.2 Most are gases/liquids at rm. temp.
4.4.1.3 Don't conduct electricity
4.4.2 Giant Covalent Structures (Macromolecules)
4.4.2.1 All atoms bonded to each other by strong CBs
4.4.2.1.1 V. high melting/boiling points
4.4.2.2 Don't conduct electricity
4.4.2.3 Examples:
4.4.2.3.1 Diamond
4.4.2.3.1.1 Forms 4 CBs
4.4.2.3.1.1.1 Hardest natural substance
4.4.2.3.2 Graphite
4.4.2.3.2.1 Forms 3 CBs
4.4.2.3.2.1.1 Creates layers - free to slide
4.4.2.3.2.1.1.1 Weak intermolecular forces between layers
4.4.2.3.2.2 Only non-metal - good conductor of heat/electricity
4.4.2.3.2.2.1 Each atom has one delocalised electron
4.4.2.3.3 Silicon dioxide (Silica)
4.4.2.3.3.1 Giant structure of silicon & oxygen
5 Metallic Structures
5.1 Giant structure
5.2 Delocalised electrons - come from outer shell of every metal atom
5.2.1 Free to move - good conductors of heat/electricity
5.2.2 Hold atoms in regular structure
5.2.2.1 Strong forces of electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions & negative electrons
5.2.3 Layers of atoms can slide - metals can be bent/shaped
5.3 Alloys
5.3.1 Mixture of 2 or more metals
5.3.2 Different elements have different sized atoms
5.3.2.1 Layers distorted - hard to slide so alloys are harder
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