Godden and Baddeley

Beth Ritchie
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

Psychology (Cognative) Mind Map on Godden and Baddeley, created by Beth Ritchie on 12/27/2013.

Beth Ritchie
Created by Beth Ritchie almost 6 years ago
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Godden and Baddeley
1 Aim
1.1 To investigate whether a natural environment can act as a cue for recall
2 Procedure
2.1 18 participants from a university diving club
2.2 Learn a list of 38 unrelated two or three syllable wordds underwater or on dry land and then recall them either underwater or on dry land
2.3 Radnomly allocated 1 of 4 conditions
2.3.1 Context-cued Learn and recall on dry land Learn and recall under water
2.3.2 No context cue Learn underwater, recall on dry land Learn on dry land, recall underwater
2.4 Took place in an open water site in Oban, Scotland
2.5 2 participants dropped and replaced for technical reasons
2.6 Conducted over 4 days
2.7 Each diver experienced each condition after a 24 hour delay, following a scheduled dive to ensure all participants were cold and wet
2.8 All fully kitted in diving gear
2.9 Underwwater wore breathing and comunication devices
2.10 On land, breathing apperatus removed
2.11 Tested 2 at a time
2.12 Submerged up to 20 feet underwater and played a tape recording of the word list
2.13 Words presented in blocks of three, with a four second interval between blocks
2.14 Each list presented twuce, and after a four minute delay, the participants had to write the words, in any order, in two minutes
2.15 All participants used a pencil to write down the words on a weighted clipboard sealed with plastic
3 Results
3.1 Recall was around 50% higher when it took place in the same environment as learning
3.2 Mean
3.2.1 Learn and recall on dry land 13.5
3.2.2 Learn and recall under water 11.4
3.2.3 Learn underwater recall dry land 8.4
3.2.4 Learn dry land recall underwater 8.6
4 Conclusion
4.1 Environment can act as a contextual cue for recall
5 Evaluation
5.1 Strengths
5.1.1 Realistic, open water environment Greater generalisability to real-life situations than lab research
5.1.2 As participants were tested in pairs, it's unlikely they would have cheated
5.2 Weaknesses
5.2.1 Lack of control Equipment failure Inconsistent diving location Lack of standardisation Timing Fitness Weather/dive conditions Noise levels
5.2.2 Cheating is still a possibility as researchers were not present
5.2.3 No change of environment couldve allowed adittional rehearsal
5.2.4 Change of environment could have experienced interference in memory Later experiment No difference due to interference task
5.3 Practical applications
5.3.1 Reinstate learning context for examinations
5.3.2 Taking witnesses back to the scene of the event

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