Memory

Sammie Ring4696
Mind Map by Sammie Ring4696, updated more than 1 year ago
Sammie Ring4696
Created by Sammie Ring4696 over 6 years ago
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A Levels Pyschology (Memory) Mind Map on Memory, created by Sammie Ring4696 on 12/29/2013.
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Resource summary

Memory
1 Multi store memory
1.1 Enviromental stimuli
1.2 Sensory Memory
1.2.1 Duration: Fractions of a second.
1.2.1.1 Sperling- All items 42% Row- 75% Info decays rapidly
1.3 STM
1.3.1 Duration: 18-30 seconds
1.3.1.1 P&P- 3 seconds- 80% 6 seconds-50% 18 seconds- <10%
1.3.2 Capacity: 7 +/- 2 items
1.3.2.1 Miller- Digit span technique Simon- Chunking
1.3.3 Encoding: Acoustic
1.3.3.1 Conrad- row of acoustically sim and disim letters Brandimonte- Acoustic not visual used
1.4 LTM
1.4.1 Duration: Potentially forever VLTM
1.4.1.1 Bahrick
1.4.1.1.1 Recognition: 15 year-90%, 25 year-80%, 34 year-75%, 47 year-60%
1.4.1.1.2 Recall: 7 year-60%, 47 year- <20%
1.4.2 Capacity: Potentially Unlimited
1.4.3 Encoding: Semantic
1.4.3.1 Baddely: dissim/sim acoustic/samantic. SemSim-55% SemDis-85% Acoustic-No Diff
1.5 Evaluations
1.5.1 Influential
1.5.2 HM supports distinct diff between the 3 stores
1.5.3 Elab and Maintanence rehearsal added
1.5.4 Prim&Rece effect
1.5.5 Simplistic
1.5.6 Lab studs- low ev
1.5.7 Pysch students
1.5.7.1 Low pop v
1.5.7.2 Demand c
1.5.8 Emotional mem
1.5.9 One way direction is incorrect
1.5.10 Single STM&LTM
2 Working Memory Model
2.1 Central excecutive
2.1.1 Allocates resources to the 3 components. Like 'attention'. Limited capacity and flexible at using any senses info.
2.2 Phonological Loop
2.2.1 Deals with auditory info
2.2.1.1 Phonological store. 'inner ear'. Spoken words, articulated in 2 secs, limited capacity.
2.2.1.2 Articulatory control system. 'Inner voice' rehearses info like a 'tape loop' (sub vocal repetition)
2.2.2 Baddeley: More short words than long in immediate recall due to articulatory time. Word length dissapears when suppresion task is used.
2.3 Visuo-spatial sketchpad
2.3.1 'Inner Eye' Stores visual &spatial info, anaylses by size, colour shape. Limited capacity.
2.3.2 Baddeley: (dual task) follow the sport on a 'F'
2.4 Episodic buffer
2.4.1 Baddeley; Extra storage system, Chunks&episdoes, limited capacity.
2.5 Evaluations
2.5.1 Influential and most preffered. More flexible.
2.5.2 Brain damage supports (SC) damage to Pl
2.5.3 PET Scans
2.5.4 Important applications for metal illness diagnosis. (Park)
2.5.5 Brain damage case studies- problematic as no before/end comparisons.
2.5.5.1 Too Vague as too less components.
3 Factors affecting EWT
3.1 Misleading Info
3.1.1 Loftus& Palmer: independent groups. 'How fast were the cars going when they hit/smashed/bumped/contacted. Speed effected by lang used.
3.1.1.1 Smashed; 41mph, Bumped; 38, Hit; 34, contacted; 32.
3.1.2 Loftus&Palmer. 3 groups one group hit one group smashed 3rd not asked. 1 week later 'did you see any broken glass' Group smashed twice as likely.
3.2 Anxiety
3.2.1 Loftus. Outside lab exposed to 1or2 situations. (1) Low key discussion about equip failure, left holding pen with greasy hands. (2) Heated discussion, breaking/crashing man with knife&blood. Given photos.
3.2.1.1 Pen man: 49%
3.2.1.1.1 Blood man 33% due to weapons effect which results in accurate weapon recall but diminished peripheral details(Man)
3.2.2 Christianson&Hubbinette, 110 witnesses, 22 real life robberies, greater anxiety better recall even after 15 month
3.3 Age
3.3.1 Kent&Youille: 9/14
3.3.2 Parker&Carranza: primary/college
3.3.3 Gross&Hayne: 5 year
3.3.4 Mermon: 16-33/60-82
4 Cognative Interview (Fisher&Geiselman)
4.1 Report Everything
4.2 Context reinstatement
4.3 Changing the order
4.4 Changing the perspective
4.5 Evaluation
4.5.1 Kohnken: Meta analysis, Increase of 34%
4.5.2 Fisher: Police miami real life settings showed big increase
4.5.3 Milne&Bull: all 4 aspects used=great recall
4.5.4 Kebbel: not all 4 aspects were used in Uk so not as good
4.5.5 Geiselman: not good on children under 8 as instructions too difficult
4.5.6 Wagstaff: Takes too long
4.6 Memory Improvement
4.6.1 Acronym
4.6.2 Acrostic poems
4.6.3 Rhymes
4.6.4 Chunking
4.6.5 Peg word system
4.6.6 Loci
4.6.7 Keyword
4.6.8 Bower: (Organisation) 112 words, 65% experimental, 21% control group.
4.6.9 Bower&Clark: (Story) 12 lists of 10 unrelated words into storys, 90% compared to 10%
4.6.10 Craik&Watkins: distinguished between rehearsals
4.6.11 Tulving&Thompson: encoding specificity principle
4.6.12 Godden&Baddeley: same location= more words.
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