benzene

Description

a level chem 4 Mind Map on benzene, created by becca.dodd on 12/29/2013.
becca.dodd
Mind Map by becca.dodd, updated more than 1 year ago
becca.dodd
Created by becca.dodd over 10 years ago
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Resource summary

benzene
  1. structure
    1. C6H6 =mr
      1. kekulé structure
        1. low reactivity
          1. -didn't react with Br water
            1. -not contain C=C bonds
              1. -not take part in other electrophilic additions
              2. C-C bond lengths
                1. C-C & C=C different lengths
                  1. benzene- C-C bonds only as all same lengths
                    1. kekulé structure wrong
                    2. hydrogenation
                      1. cyclohexene (1 C=C) -120 KJ mol-1
                        1. cyclo-1,3,5-triene (3 C=C) -360 KJ mol-1
                          1. benzene -208 KJ mol-1
                            1. more stable then cyclo-1,3,5-triene
                      2. relative ease of bromination
                        1. easy- ethene
                          1. middle- phenol
                            1. hard- benzene
                              1. -π e' delocalised in benzene ring -e' density low -can't polarise Br2 -halogen carrier needed for reaction
                              2. -lone pair of OH partially delocalised in ring -e'density higher than benzene -can polarise Br2
                              3. -e' localised C=C -e' density is high -can polarise Br2
                              4. points for the answer
                                1. order of reactivity (hexene>phenol>benzene)
                                  1. benzene- π e' are delocalised
                                    1. phenol- lone pair is partially delocalised into ring
                                      1. hexene- e' localised between 2 carbons
                                        1. benzene lower e' density than phenol which is lower than hexene
                                          1. benzene can't polarise Br2
                                        2. properties
                                          1. common start of aromatic compounds
                                            1. carsinogen
                                              1. colourless & flamable
                                              2. reactions
                                                1. nitration of benzene
                                                  1. conc HNO3 conc H2SO4 50'c
                                                    1. C6H6 + HNO3 = C6H5NO2 + H2O
                                                  2. halogenation
                                                    1. -requires halogen carrier -used as catalyst -carrier same as halogen
                                                    2. reducing reaction
                                                      1. propanal + reducing agent ( [H] ) = propan-1-ol
                                                        1. reducing agent (NaBH4)
                                                          1. generates hydride ions (H-)
                                                        2. nucleophilic addition
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