Sensation and Perception

jadelee.gorst
Mind Map by jadelee.gorst, updated more than 1 year ago
jadelee.gorst
Created by jadelee.gorst about 4 years ago
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Psych 104

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Sensation and Perception
1 Psychophysics: Basic Concepts and Issues
1.1 Thresholds: Looking for limits
1.1.1 Threshold: Dividing points between energy levels that do and do not have a detectable effect
1.1.1.1 JDN: smallest difference in the amount of stimulation that a specific sense can detecct
1.1.1.1.1 Weber's law: size of noticeable difference is a constant proportion of size of the initial stimulus
1.1.2 Signal Detection theory: detection of stimuli involves decision processes as well as sensory process, which are both influenced by a variety of factors besides stimulus intensity
1.1.3 Perception without Awareness: Subliminal perception- sensory input without conscious awareness
1.1.4 Sensory adaptation: gradual decline in sensitivity due to prolonged stimulation
2 Our sense of Sight: The Visual System
2.1 Stimulus: light- is a form of electromagnetic radiation that travels as a wave, moving enough at the speed of light
2.2 The Eye: creates an image of the visual world
2.2.1 Lens: transparent eye structure that focuses the light rays falling on the retina.
2.2.1.1 Farsighted and nearsighted
2.2.1.1.1 Pupil: helps regulate the amount of light passing into the rear chamber of the eye
2.3 The retina: absorbs light, process images, sends visual information to the brain
2.3.1 Visual receptors: rods and cones
2.3.1.1 Dark and light adaptation
2.3.1.1.1 Information processing in the retina
2.4 Vision and the Brain
2.4.1 Visual pathways to the brain- Optic chiasm- optic nerves from the inside half of each eye cross over and then project to the opposite half of the brain
2.4.1.1 Information processing in the visual cortex
2.5 Viewing the world in Colour
2.5.1 The stimulus for colour: subtractive colour mixing and additive mixing
2.5.1.1 Trichromatic Theory of Colour Vision- the three different type of receptors with different sensitives to different light wavelengths
2.5.1.1.1 Opponent Process theory of colour vision
2.5.1.1.1.1 Complementary colours and afterimage
3 The Visual system: Perceptual Processes
3.1 Perceiving forms, patterns, and objects
3.1.1 Reversible figure- drawing that is compatible with two interpretations that can shift back and forth
3.1.1.1 Perceptual set- Readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way
3.1.1.1.1 Assembling forms: Feature analysis, bottom up processing, top-down processing, subjective contours
3.2 Looking at the Whole Picture: Gestait Principles
3.2.1 Figure and ground, Proximity, closure, similarity, simplicity, and Continuity
3.2.1.1 Formulating Perceptual Hypotheses
3.3 Perceiving Depth and Distance
3.3.1 Depth perception: involves interpretation of visual cues that indicate how near or far away objects
3.3.1.1 Binocular Cues: clues about the distance based on the differing views of the two eyes
3.3.1.1.1 Monocular Cues: clues about distance based on the image in wither eyes alone
3.4 Perceptual Constancies In Vision
3.4.1 Perceptual constancy: tendency to experience a stable perception in the face of continually changing sensory input
3.5 The Power of Misleading Cues: Optical Illusions
3.5.1 Optical Illusions: inexplicable discrepancy between he appearance of visual stimulus and its physical reality
3.5.1.1 Different illusions- Muller-Lyer illusion, The ames room, A monster illusion
4 Our sense of Hearing: The auditory system
4.1 The Stimulus: Sound
4.1.1 sounds waves are vibrations of molecules, which means that they must travel through some physical medium, such as air
4.2 Hearing Capacities
4.2.1 Wavelengths of sound are described in terms of their frequency which are then measured in cycles per second
4.3 Sensory Processing in the ear
4.3.1 Ears channel energy to the neural tissue that receives it
4.3.1.1 Different parts of the ear: External ear- Pinna, Middle ear- three tiny bones (Hammer, anvil, strirrup, inner ear- cochlea, basilar
4.4 Auditory perception: theories of hearing
4.4.1 Place theory: holds that perception of pitch corresponds to the vibration of different portions, or places, along the basilar membrane
4.4.1.1 Frequency theory: holds that perception of pitch corresponds to the rate, or frequency, at which the entire basilar membrane vibrates
4.4.1.1.1
5 Our Chemical senses: Taste and smell
5.1 Taste: the gustatory system
5.1.1 Gustatory system: the sensory system for taste
5.2 Smell-The Olfactory system
5.2.1 Pheromones are chemical messages. they can be sent by one organism and recieved by another member of the same species
6 Sense of touch: Sensory systems in the skin
6.1 Feeling pain
6.1.1 Pathways to the Brain
6.1.1.1 Two path ways slow and fast.
6.2 Puzzles in Pain perception
6.2.1 Pain can be influenced by personality, mood and other factors. its is not automatic.
6.3 Gate-controlled theory: holds that incoming pain signals can be blocked in the spinal cord. endorphins and a descending neural pathway appear to be responsible for the suppression of pain by the central nervous system.
7 Our other senses
7.1 Kinesthetic system: the positions of the various parts of the body
7.2 The Vestibular system
7.2.1 responds to gravity and keeps you informed of your body's location in space
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