Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

AS Psychology (PSYA1) Mind Map on STM, LTM, MSM, WMM, created by erica28 on 12/30/2013.

Created by erica28 almost 6 years ago
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1.1 Capacity- Amount
1.2 Miller (1956) - Ptps were read a sequence of numbers in trails eg trail 1 - 6, trail 2 - 78 etc and after each trail was read by the researcher the ptp had to recal the number or numbers. He called this 'chunking' and found that between 5 and 9 'chunks' could be contained within the STM.
1.3 Peterson & Peterson (1959) - Gave their ptps nonsense trigrams (IQX) and then got them to count backwards from a 3 diget number for between 3-18 seconds. About 90 per cent of the ptps recalled the trigram after 3 seconds but only around 5 per cent recalled the trigram after 18 seconds, suggesting that STM duration is around 20-30 seconds.
1.4 Baddeley (1966) - Ptps had to recall lists of semantically similar words (big,grand,large) , semantically dissimilar words (tree,donkey,car), acoustically similar words (cat,bat,hat) and acoustically dissimilar words (frog,sock,hair). He found that ptps given acoustically similar perform the worst with 10 per cent recall.
2.1 Bahrick (1975) - showed 400 ptps aged 17-74 a set of photos and a list of names, some were old school friends and asked them to identify their friends in the photos. Those who left school in the last 15 years recalled 90 per cent of faces and names, while those who left school 48 years ago recalled 80 per cent of names and 70 per cent faces, suggesting that memory for faces in long lasting.
3 Multi Store Model of Memory
3.1 Developed by Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) explains how information flows from one storage system to another, with three permanent structures in memory: sensory memory, short- term memory and long- term memory each stage differs in terms of capacity, duration and encoding.
3.2 You recieve information through your senses (touch, taste, sight, smell, sound). This information then goes into your sensory store which you will then put into your short term memory (and forget it) or your long term memory whether if the information is important or not. Before it goes into your long term memory your rehearse it, after that you retrieve the information from your STM to rehearse it for you LTM.
3.3 Baddeley (1996) found that the STM encodes information acoustically and the LTM encodes information semantically. This supports the multi store model as it shows that the STM and LTM are seperate stores. This lacks ecological validity and therefore STM & LTM encoding could be more complex.
3.4 Glanzer & Conitz (1996) found that when recalling lists of words ptps recalled at the beggining (primary effect) and at the end of the list this supports the multi-store model as ptp used rehearsak for the first few words in the list and put them into their LTM as the model predicts. It also shows the words reaclled at the end of the list were still in the STM as they last in this store for a duration of approx 18 seconds so ptps reaclled them. This research also lacks ecological validity because it uses lists of words most memories are not list of words, they use emotons etc.
4 Working Memory Model
4.1 Central Execeutive - This is the most important component in the model and its responsible for monitoring and coordinating the operation of the slave systems. It is flexible in that it can process information from any modelity and also has some storage capacity although it is very limited. It seems to play a major role in attention, planning and in synthesizing information, not only from slave systems but the LTM.
4.2 The Phonological Loop- This component stores a limited number of sounds for brief periods and it can be thought of as an inner ear. It is thought to consist of two components. One component is the phonological store (inner ear) that allows acoustically coded items to be stored for a brief period, The other component is the articulatory control system (the inner voice) that allows subvocal repitition of the items stored int the phonological store.
4.3 The Visuo- Spactical Sketchpad - This stores visual and spactical information and can be thought of as an inner eye. Like the phonological loop it has limited capacity but the limits of the two systems are independent. In other words, it is possible for example, to rehearse a set of digets in the phonological loop while simultaneously making decisions about the spactical layout of a set of letters in the visuo spactical sketchpad.
4.4 Episodic Buffer - Is a tempory store which holds information for a few seconds while we process it.

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